House Rules: Mass Combat

Mass Combat Rules

Armies


An army is actually composed of one or more units. When you create an army, you are actually creating the army units that will compose the army. Each unit can be made up of creatures or classes, and be of a size different from other units. In this way, an army can be more versatile in war. For example, your army can have a unit of 500 1st-level fighters, 200 1st-level archers, 100 2nd-level heavy knights, and 50 3rd-level wizards.

Leading an Army

Each army must have a designated leader, known as the army commander. A commander with a good Profession (soldier) skill and/or the Leadership feat can assist the army's performance on the battlefield. An army commander can be a PC or an NPC, but must spend at least 3 days per week (if the army is in the field) or per month (if the army is in reserve, see below), or the army suffers a -1 penalty to Morale. This penalty accumulates each week or month the leader fails to show up. If the army's morale drops to -5, it disbands as noted above. The commander can alleviate this penalty by simply showing up the required amount of time; each week or month he does so, the penalty is reduced by 1. The penalty can also be reduced by 1 each week or month by doubling the army's consumption. The army commander is also the leader of one of the army's units, known as the command unit.

Leadership Check: Army commanders and unit leaders must often make a leadership check which consists of rolling 1d20 and adding her Leadership Bonus (LB). A commander’s base LB is equal to +1 for every 5 points of her Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and adds either her Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma modifier (whichever is highest). If she has the Leadership feat, the bonus increases by 1 for every 10 points of her Leadership Score. In addition, a commander’s LB is increased by 1 for every 5 base attack bonus above +1. Enhancement bonuses to these modifiers do not increase the bonus.
    Profession (soldier) skill is used for ground-based armies. Aerial commanders use Profession (aeronaut), naval commanders use Profession (sailor), and siege commanders use Knowledge (engineering).

Army Statistics

Name: This is the name of the army. This could be a mercenary company's name, such as "Thokk's Bloodragers," a formal regiment number such as "7th Royal Cavalry," or an informal name such as "militia from Redstone."

XP: This is the total accumulated XP earned by the army. XP is gained by participating in battles and is determined by the opposing army's ACR. A victorious army earns the full amount of XP for the battle, while a defeated army earns half of that amount as long as they are not destroyed or disbanded. When the army earns enough XP, all troops in that army gain a level. The amount of XP required to level is determined by the same advancement for PCs, using the army's ACR in place of the PC's level. An army's starting XP equals the amount needed to reach its ACR. An army loses all accumulated XP when it is disbanded.

Alignment: An army's alignment has no effect on its statistics, and is just a convenient way to summarize its attitude with two letters. It is usually the same alignment as a typical unit in that army.

Army Challenge Rating (ACR): An army's challenge rating is the average CR of all of its units together plus the total number of units within the army.

Army Tactics: These are any army tactics that all units have at their disposal in addition to those they already have.

Army Morale: This number represents how confident the overall army is. Army morale is a modifier from -10 (worst) to +10 (best). This modifier is applied to its unit's morale checks. A new army's starting morale is +0. Morale can be further modified by the army's commander and other factors. If an army's Morale is ever reduced to -11 or lower, all of the army's units disband or desert, and you no longer control it.

Consumption: This is how many Build Points (BP) an army consumes each week (unlike most nation expenses, this cost is per week, not per month), representing the cost to feed, hydrate, arm, train, care for, and pay the units. An army’s base Consumption is equal to its ACR divided by 2 (minimum 1). If the army is composed of followers of a PC with the Leadership feat, then the base Consumption is instead one-quarter of its ACR (minimum 1) as long as the army commander is the PC or their cohort of these follower-soldiers. The army's Morale reduces by 1 every week (or month) Consumption is not paid; this penalty ends when you catch up on the army’s pay.

Supplies: An army's Supplies is used to pay its Consumption and used to pay for other expenses such as army engineering projects. Supplies take the form of an amount of BP carried by the army, and represents the army's pay, food, materials, and equipment replacements.

Camouflage: An army's Camouflage score is equal to the worse Camouflage score of its units.

Speed: An army's movement speed is equal to that of its slowest unit.

Army Commander: This entry lists the army's commander and the commander's highest mental attribute modifier, Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and Leadership score. The commander must be able to communicate with the army (possibly using message spells and similar magical forms of communication) in order to give orders or provide a bonus on the army's rolls.

Commander Boons: This lists the boons the commander knows (see Boons). A commander's maximum number of boons known is 1 plus her LB. A new or unexceptional commander might know no boons at first, but can gain them from victories in battle. If you're a nation leader acting as a commander, you automatically have one boon appropriate to your leadership role (see below). Army units gain the benefit of the commander's boons in addition to those of their unit leader.

Units: The different groups of creatures that make up the army. See Unit Statistics below. An army can have a number of units equal to 1 + the army commander's LB. In addition, all army units gain half of the commander's LB to MV, RV, and DV.

Unit Statistics

Unit Leader: This entry lists the unit's leader and the leader's highest mental attribute modifier, Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and Leadership score. The unit gains its leader's LB to MV, RV, and DV. A unit led by the army commander still adds one-half of the commander's LB in addition to the unit leader's LB to OM and DV.

Unit Challenge Rating (UCR): This is based on the CR of an individual soldier from the unit and the unit's size, and scales like CRs for monsters. To determine UCR, see Table: Army Sizes and apply the modifier for the army's size to the CR of an individual unit in the army.

Sections: Sections determine how much hp a unit has. An army unit is composed of up to 5 sections of equal size, and each section has hit points equal to the unit's UCR (minimum 1). However, not all leaders are are capable of handling the leadership demands of a full unit; hence, the maximum number of sections in a unit is limited to 1 + the leader’s LB. A unit that is lacking one or more sections at the beginning of a battle takes a -1 penalty to MV, RV, DV, and Morale checks per missing section. A section is destroyed when it receives Casualties equal to its hp. A unit is destroyed if all of its sections are destroyed as well. Each time a section is destroyed, the unit loses 1 point of Morale.
    For example, a Small-size army unit is composed of 1st-level human fighters (CR 1), and therefore has a UCR of 5. The unit's leader has a Charisma score of 14 (+2), a Profession (soldier) skill modifier of +10 (+2), and a Leadership score of 13 (+1). The unit's leader is thus fully capable of commanding a full unit of 5 sections, each with 5 hp for a unit total of 25 hp. However, if the leader had only a Charisma score of 10 (+0), a Profession (soldier) skill modifier of +11 (+2), and no Leadership score, she would only be able to command a weakened unit of of 3 sections, which would only have a unit total of 15 hp, and have a -2 penalty to MV, RV, DV, and Morale checks (because of 2 missing sections).

Melee Value (MV): A unit’s combat prowess in melee is reflected in its MV. Units have a base MV equal to their UCR plus the LB of its leader and half of the army commander's LB. MV can also be modified by equipment, special abilities, command boons, tactics, fatigue, environmental conditions, and the like.

Ranged Value (RV): A unit’s combat prowess in ranged combat is reflected in its RV. RV functions identically to MV, except that units are required to have the ranged weapons resource or other ranged attack capabilities. If it does not, then the unit those not have an RV value (denoted as "RV —").

Offense Modifier (OM): For simplicity's sake, both the MV and RV can be referred together as the OM, and its modifier applies to both attributes (if applicable in the case of RV).

Offense Check: Making an offense check can refer to either making a range attack or a melee attack.

Defense Value (DV): The defensive abilities of a unit are reflected in its DV. Units have a base DV equal to 10 + their UCR and their leader’s LB and their army commander's LB, adjusted by any applicable modifiers, such as those listed under MV.

Unit Morale: A unit’s Morale reflects its fighting spirit and its skill and confidence on the battlefield. Morale checks are often required to succeed at various battlefield tactics, or to overcome special effects caused by enemy armies. A brand-new unit has a Morale score equal to the nation’s Loyalty modifier divided by 20 (rounding down, with a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 10), and it can increase or decrease during the course of a battle and in its aftermath, increasing with victory and falling with defeat. A unit’s Morale score can never exceed 10, and if it ever drops to -11 or lower, the unit disbands.
    A unit’s Morale score modifies its Morale checks, adding the LB of its leader and the army's Morale modifier. For each section missing from the unit’s full strength, whether already missing before battle or defeated during a battle, the unit takes a -1 penalty to its Morale checks.

Speed: A unit's Movement is equal to the movement speed of its creatures.

Unit Tactics: These are any army tactics the unit has at its disposal.

Scouting: See Scouting and Camouflage below.

Camouflage: See Scouting and Camouflage below.

Unit Boons: Unit leaders have boons just like army commanders, except they only have a number equal to their LB.

Building Armies


Boons

Boons are special abilities a commander grants to an army. Most of these boons affect the rolls and statistics for battles, and the commander must be present at the battle to provide their benefit. A commander grants the army all the boons she knows (she doesn’t have to select just one). An army commander's boon can be applied to all eligible units in the army, while a unit leader's boons are applied to only her unit.

Leaders and Losses: If a leader is killed or incapacitated, any boons she provides are lost for the remainder of the battle, except for permanent boons. If a unit is destroyed or disbanded, a d% should be rolled for its leader and any significant character fighting with it to determine if they escape (01-30), are killed (31-50), or are captured (51-00). Player characters should typically escape with 25% of their hit points rather than being killed, or the GM may run an individual combat encounter to resolve their fate. In any event, characters that escape can spend one Battle Phase making their way to the Command Zone (not counting the phase in which their army was eliminated). Once there, the army commander can reassign them to a new unit, and in subsequent Battle Phases, they can again make use of their command boon (not including permanent boons).

Permanent Boons: Some command boons are not dependent on a specific action taken by a commander during battle, but instead reflect specialized training of the unit with their leader and with other soldiers with a similar range of skills. These permanent boons must be applied when a unit is created, and the leader cannot later shift the permanent boon to a different unit, though she can retire from command of the unit. The leader forfeits the ability to grant a boon (or one boon, if able to grant more than one) for 2d4 months after retiring. If the leader leaves a unit with a permanent boon, whether through death, retirement, or some other incapacity, and is not replaced by another significant leader that also qualifies to grant the same command boon, the unit loses 1d4 points of Morale and the permanent boon is lost within 1d4 months.

The following boons can be selected by commanders, but no boon can be applied to an army more than once unless otherwise noted. Most boons apply to only one army at a time but can be shifted from unit to unit during each Battle Phase. A boon marked with an A applies to all allied armies (or includes an effect that affects all allied armies). A boon marked with P is a permanent boon that applies to only a single army and cannot be shifted to other armies.

  • Advanced Tactics An army with this boon gains a +2 bonus to its OM; however, this bonus is halved if the target army also has Advanced Tactics or Defensive Tactics. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have at least 11 ranks in 5 different skills, one of which must be Profession (soldier).
  • Bloodied but Unbroken The commander inspires the army to be at its greatest in the most desperate times. A unit gains a +1 bonus to OM for each missing section. Requirement: A commander must have Leadership 4 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership 10 or higher, this bonus increases to +2.
  • Bonus Tactic Choose one tactic. The commander always knows this tactic, and the commander’s army can use this tactic even if it doesn’t know that tactic on its own. You can select this boon multiple times; each time you select it, choose a new tactic.
  • Cavalry Experts: Your army’s OM increases by 2 against armies that aren’t mounted. Requirement: The army must have the mount resource.
  • Combined Tactics An army with this boon deploys screening infantry to defend its ranged attackers. The army cannot attack in the Melee Phase but gains a +1 bonus to its DV until the beginning of the next Melee Phase and can make ranged attacks even if engaged. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the army must have ranged weapons and a Dexterity of 13 or higher.
  • Daring Maneuvers An army with this boon can overextend itself to press home an advantage, though this leaves its flanks exposed. The army gains a +4 MV (or AV) bonus but takes a -2 penalty to DV until it acts in the next Melee Phase.
  • Death Before Dishonor An army with this boon reduces Morale penalties or reductions, regardless of their source. All effects that would cause a -1 penalty to Morale have no effect, while larger Morale penalties or reductions are reduced by 1. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the soldiers in the army must all have the aura of courage, bravery, rage, or resolve class feature or the Iron Will feat.
  • Defensive Tactics The commander is especially good at defensive tactics. Increase the army’s DV by 2. a commander must have Leadership 5 or higher to select this boon.
  • Expert Flankers Your army is skilled at surrounding the foe and distracting them, at the cost of spreading out too much and being more vulnerable. Increase its MV and RV by 2, and decrease its DV by 2.
  • Flexible Tactics The commander trains the army to be receptive to multiple orders during a battle. The army gains a +5 bonus on Morale checks to change tactics during a battle. A commander must have Leadership 6 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership 12 or higher, this bonus increases to +10.
  • Hit and RunP The commander drills the army in quick attacks followed by a fast retreat. After attacks are resolved in the Ranged phase or the first Melee phase, the army may use the withdraw tactic with a +2 bonus on its opposed Morale checks. a commander must have Leadership 5 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership 10 or higher, this bonus increases to +4. In addition, if an army with this boon attacks an army with which it is not engaged, it can attempt to disengage immediately after its attack by making a Morale check. Requirement: The character granting this boon and soldiers must have the Flyby Attack, Improved Overrun, Ride-by Attack, or Spring Attack feat or the trample, vortex, or whirlwind special attack.
  • Hold the Line The commander is skilled at convincing the army to maintain morale against dangerous opponents. If the army fails a Morale check to avoid a rout, it may reroll that check. It must accept the results of the second check, even if it is worse. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have the aura of courage, bravery, inspire courage, or resolve class feature or the ability to cast remove fear.
  • Implacable Advance Each Melee phase, this boon grants one army a +1 bonus to MV, and Morale until the end of the current Melee Phase. Any army it attacks takes a -1 penalty to Morale until the beginning of the next Battle Phase. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have a base attack bonus of +11 or greater.
  • Last StandP A unit with this boon can stave off elimination when on the brink of destruction. If the army is reduced to 0 hit points or below, it is not defeated or destroyed if it receives a Magical Healing boon or uses Healing Potions before the end of the current Battle Phase sufficient to restore it to at least 1 hit point. Even if it does not receive this healing, it remains engaged with any enemy armies until the end of the next Melee phase, and it can make an attack in that phase against an army engaged with it, though it cannot move, retreat, disengage, or attack armies not engaged with it. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the army must have the rage or resolve class feature, ferocity or orc ferocity special quality, or Endurance feat.
  • Live off the Land The commander makes the army trap game, hunt, and fish to augment its food supplies. Reduce the army’s Consumption and speed by half for any week this boon is used. The GM may rule that Huge and larger armies deplete the available resources from a hex over 1d3 weeks, requiring the army to move if it wants to maintain the reduced Consumption level.
  • LoyaltyA The commander inspires great loyalty in the army. The army gains a +2 bonus on all Morale checks. a commander must have Leadership 6 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership 12 or higher, this bonus increases to +4. In addition, as long as a commander with this boon and his army are active on the field, all allied armies gain a +1 bonus to Morale checks made to avoid routing or disbanding during the Rout phase. Requirement: The character providing this boon must have a Charisma score of 15 or higher.
  • Magical AdvantageA All allied armies gain a +1 bonus on damage rolls and gain a +1 bonus to Morale checks if the army they attack does not also have Magical Advantage or Magical Protection. Requirement: The character providing this boon must be able to cast at least one spell of 6th level or higher.
  • Magical Barrage An army with this boon can attack during the Ranged Phase with a bonus to RV equal to 1/2 the level of the highest-level spell that the character granting the boon is able to cast. Requirement: The character granting the boon must have the channel negative energy ability or be capable of casting at least one area-effect offensive spell of 3rd level or higher.
  • Magical Healing Immediately before the end of each Battle round, this unit can remove 2d4 hp of damage from any one allied army. If the target army is fatigued, that condition is removed but the damage healed is halved. If the target army is exhausted, that condition is reduced to fatigued and the damage healed is halved. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have the channel positive energy ability or be able to cast at least one mass cure wounds spell.
  • Magical Protection An army with this boon gains a +1 bonus to its DV and reduces damage from all attacks by 1 point. In addition, modifiers from enemies using Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, and Magical Trickery are negated for an army with this boon. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting abjuration spells of 4th level or higher.
  • Magical Trickery At the beginning of each Battle round, this army may select one enemy army to confound with illusions, mind-affecting effects, and magical barriers to sight and movement. The target army takes a penalty equal to 1/2 the highest-level spell that the character providing this boon is able to cast, and that character may choose to affect the target army’s MV, RV, DV, Morale, Speed, or Scouting, or as a bonus to an allied army’s Camouflage. If the target army’s speed is reduced to 0, it cannot disengage or use any tactic, boon, or special ability requiring movement. Each round, you may target a different enemy army, or you may continue targeting the same army with a different penalty or repeating the same penalty. The effects of Magical Trickery end at the beginning of the next Melee Phase unless you renew them. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be able to cast at least one area-effect illusion or mind-affecting spell or spell that impedes movement (e.g., solid fog, wall of thorns) of 3rd level or higher.
  • Master RecruiterA The maximum number of armies the kingdom may support is increased by 2. If this boon is lost, the army with the lowest Morale immediately disbands and flees the battlefield. If multiple armies have identical Morale scores, determine randomly). Requirement: The character granting this boon must have the Leadership feat. Special: This boon can be selected more than once, and its effects stack.
  • Merciless The commander encourages the army to be ruthless in its tactics and spare no wounded enemies. The army gains a +1 bonus on opposed Morale checks to prevent another army from withdrawing and on the last Offense check against a routed army or one using the withdraw tactic. In addition, if you reduce an enemy army to 0 hit points, it is automatically destroyed rather than merely defeated. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have at least 6 ranks in Intimidate, the Combat Reflexes feat, or an evil alignment.
  • Quick Repairs An army inside a fortification can conduct emergency repairs while a battle still rages, repairing 1d6 points of damage to a fortification at the end of each Rout Phase (assuming the army has not been routed itself). An army on board one or more ships, or a naval squadron with this command boon, can likewise use this ability to repair ships that have not been sunk. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be able to cast at least one 4th-level or higher conjuration (creation) spell.
  • Ready for Battle An army with this boon gains a +4 bonus to skill checks made to determine tactical initiative during the Tactics Phase.
  • Screaming for VengeanceA The first time during a battle that any army is defeated, destroyed, or routed (but not if it is disbanded), all allied armies gain a +1 bonus to OM and Morale checks for the remainder of that Battle phase (doubled to +2 if attacking or engaged with the army that defeated, destroyed, or routed their allied army).
  • SharpshooterP The commander drills the army in precision ranged attacks. The army gains a +2 bonus on Offense checks against armies using fortifications. This boon has no effect if the army can’t make ranged attacks. In addition, the army never deals friendly fire damage to allied armies. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the army must have the Precise Shot feat.
  • Swift RidersP: An army with this boon gains a +2 bonus to Morale checks to disengage (doubled to +4 against enemy armies that are not mounted). Requirement: mounts. Cannot use medium or heavy armor. Significant character and soldiers must have Mounted Combat or Skill Focus (Ride) feat.
  • Triage Whether using magic, alchemy, herbalism, or folk knowledge, the commander drills the army in using emergency methods to treat wounds. Once per battle, the army may take a -4 penalty on its Offense check during the Ranged or Melee phase and heal damage equal to half its ACR. If the army has the healing potions resource, it also gains the healing from this boon (without the Offense check penalty) when it uses healing potions.
  • Wolves in the FoldP An army with this boon uses disguise and deception to infiltrate enemy lines and throw them into chaos. On the first Melee Phase of a battle, this army gains a +1d6 bonus to its MV, and on a successful attack the target army takes a -1 penalty to its own MV, DV, and Morale until the beginning of the next Melee Phase. Requirement: The character granting the boon and the soldiers must have the sneak attack special attack, shapechanger subtype, change shape or disguise self ability, or a Disguise or Stealth bonus of +10 or greater.

Nation Leader Commanders

If you have a nation leadership role (Ruler, High Priest, Grand Diplomat, and so on), you may take the role of an army commander. To determine your bonus on Morale checks and the maximum number of boons you can know, use either one-fifth your ranks in Profession (soldier) or one-sixth your character level, whichever is higher (minimum 1). As with other commanders, you must remain active with the army to grant your commander bonus on Morale checks, and must be at the battle to provide tactics and bonuses.
    Your leadership role determines what boons you automatically know (even if you don’t meet the Leadership requirements for those boons). If a role lists multiple boons, you must choose one when you become a commander. (Others may be gained in the normal manner).

Ruler: Bloodied but Unbroken, Loyalty
Consort: Loyalty
Councilor: Loyalty
Enforcer: Bonus Tactic, Merciless, Sharpshooter
General: Bonus Tactic, Flexible Tactics, Merciless, Sharpshooter
Grand Diplomat: Defensive Tactics, Merciless
Heir: Loyalty
High Priest: Hold the Line, Live off the Land, Triage
Magister: Flexible Tactics, Loyalty
Marshal: Live off the Land, Hit and Run, Sharpshooter, Triage
Spymaster: Hit and Run, Merciless, Sharpshooter
Treasurer: Loyalty
Viceroy: Loyalty
Warden: Defensive Tactics, Hold the Line, Loyalty

Recruiting an Army

Recruiting for an army unit is a lengthy and costly affair. Your nation's General selects one settlement or Fort to recruit in, and makes one Loyalty check per day, adding the nation's Infamy modifier and an additional bonus equal to the number of BP he spends on recruitment. Your nation must spend at least 1 BP each day it recruits, but it is not required to recruit every day. Each day that the General succeeds on his Loyalty check, the nation recruits 1d6 soldiers per BP spent, plus an additional 2d6 per Watchtower, 4d6 soldiers per Barracks, 8d6 soldiers per Castle or Garrison in the settlement. If the General rolls a natural 20 on his Loyalty check, the maximum number of soldiers are recruited that day. A failed check means that the minimum number of soldiers arrive (or none, if the check is a natural 1). The General may choose to recruit Elites rather than ordinary soldiers, assuming the prerequisite buildings are available in the settlement where the unit is being recruited; however, each check brings only 1/4 the normal number of soldiers (rounding down). New recruits normally begin at 1st-level PC races, but higher level soldiers or monster races can be recruited with the daily BP cost equaling the creature's CR squared (CR 2 soldiers cost 4 BP per day, 3rd-level soldiers cost 9 BP per day, and so on).

Recruits: Once people are recruited, they are considered recruits but are not yet an army. The nation’s Consumption increases by 1 for every 100 recruits (or fraction thereof) it supports, and recruits count against the nation’s Manpower limit. Recruits that will not be used as reinforcements to an existing army or used to form a new unit can be kept at the improvement where they were recruited in anticipation of adding further recruits in the future or they can be sent home to avoid paying Consumption or to decrease the nation’s Manpower load.

Training: Once a sufficient number of soldiers has been attracted, you can begin forming them into one or more armies or units, spending a number of BP equal to the ACR of each unit (plus any modifiers for equipment) to create the unit. At this point, the army or unit must train until the end of the next nation turn after the Recruitment action was taken, at which point another Loyalty check is required with a penalty equal to the new army or unit’s ACR. If the check succeeds, the army is ready for duty. If it fails, the unit’s training is incomplete; it must wait until the following nation turn to attempt another Loyalty check (with a cumulative +2 bonus for each check after the first), spending BP equal to its ACR each month. Once the Loyalty check is successful, the unit is ready for battle.

Reinforcements: Recruits can be formed into a new unit and added to an existing army. If the army is garrisoned in the same settlement as the recruits, then the new unit is immediately added. Otherwise, either the new unit or the army will need to travel and meet up with each other in the same hex, where the new unit is immediately added to the army. Two units of the same creatures, class, resources, and level may merge into a larger unit.

Recruiting Mercenaries: Rather than conscripting or recruiting its own citizens to fight, a nation can hire mercenaries to fight its battles on its behalf. Mercenary armies come ready-trained and usually have their own equipment, though smaller mercenary bands may be seeking employment in the hope of making enough money to truly establish themselves. The BP cost of recruiting a mercenary army is reduced by half compared to recruiting a citizen army, and mercenary armies do not count against the nation’s Manpower limit or its command limit on how many armies it can field. However, mercenaries demand to be paid in cash for the duration of their employment. A typical fee is 100 gp times the army’s ACR every week; this fee is in addition to the nation paying the BP cost for their consumption.

Mercenaries can be recruited unequipped, arming as the nation wishes and at their expense. They may also be hired with their own equipment, but in which case they will charge a fee of 100 gp times the BP value of their equipment each month (each year if a garrisoned army). Healing potions for a mercenary army must be bought with BP.

Recruiting a mercenary army functions much like recruiting a normal army; however, the nation also must make an Economy check against the same DC any time it makes a Loyalty check as part of the recruitment process.

Table: Army Unit Sizes

Unit Size Number of Soldiers UCR Designation Resource Scaling Camouflage
Fine 1 CR of individual creature - 2 Solo n/a +8
Diminutive 10 CR of individual creature Squad x 1/10 +6
Tiny 25 CR of individual creature + 2 Platoon x 1/4 +4
Small 50 CR of individual creature + 4 Reinforced Platoon x 1/2 +2
Medium 100 CR of individual creature + 6 Company x 1 +0
Large 200 CR of individual creature + 8 Reinforced Company x 2 -2
Huge 500 CR of individual creature + 10 Battalion x 5 -5
Gargantuan 1,000 CR of individual creature + 12 Reinforced Battalion x 10 -10
Colossal 2,000 CR of individual creature + 14 Regiment x 20 -20
Colossal+1 4,000 CR of individual creature + 16 Reinforced Regiment x 40 -40
Colossal+2 8,000 CR of individual creature + 18 Brigade x 80 -80
Colossal+3 16,000 CR of individual creature + 20 Reinforced Brigade x 160 -160
Colossal+4 32,000 CR of individual creature + 22 Division x 320 -320
Colossal+5 64,000 CR of individual creature + 24 Corps x 640 -640

Equipping Your Army

Your army starts out with simple melee weapons and light armor. You can, however, improve them up by buying additional resources for them when they are created. The noted extra buildings are required in the city where the army is created. All costs are for equipping a Medium army. Multiply the cost and Consumption increases by the unit size Resource Scaling multiplier for smaller or larger units.
    Weapons and armor made of special materials (such as adamantine, aetherium, or cold iron) are almost impossible to acquire in mass quantities to outfit an army, and can only be purchased and equipped on an individual basis. Units with weapons made of special materials are considered to be equipped with the Superior Weapons resource, and provide the benefit of overcoming the damage reduction of an opposing army specific to that material. Certain special materials provide additional benefits (see below).

  • Armor: Units are equipped with light armor by default.
    • Adamantine: Adamantine doubles the armor resources bonus to DV.
    • Aetherium: A unit equipped with aetherium armor ignores the Speed penalty from Medium and Heavy armor.
    • Heavy:The unit is equipped with heavy armor, such as banded mail and full plate.
    • Magic: The unit's armor is magically enhanced.
    • Medium: The unit is equipped with medium armor, such as breastplate and chainmail.
  • Chariot: These wheeled conveyances are driven into combat, drawn by war-trained beasts of burden and bearing one or more warriors into battle. Its cost and speed depends on the mount chosen to pull the chariot.
    • Heavy: These combat vehicles are stout and sturdy, drawn by a team of two heavy or four light mounts. Heavy chariots are usually armor-plated to give cover to a pair of armed passengers. The chariots themselves are typically spiked and bladed for scything through enemy formations.
    • Light: These combat vehicles are lightweight and fast, each drawn by a single heavy mount or a pair of light mounts, usually with a single driver and a bow-armed rider. Bladed hubs cut a bloody path though creatures approaching a moving chariot’s flanks.
  • Engineers: The unit is assigned a team of engineers or is trained in engineering. Engineers allow the unit to build engineering works, and increase the bonuses and DV reduction of siege weapons by 1.
  • Firearms: The unit is equipped with firearms, and is considered to have the Ranged Weapons resource.
    • Advanced: The unit is equipped with advanced firearms such as rifles.
  • Early: The unit is equipped with early firearms such as muskets.
  • Howdah: Howdahs are special saddles and battle platforms used by smaller creatures to ride much larger creatures (more than one size category larger) into combat. The base unit is considered to be the mount on which the howdahs are mounted, and its CR is used to determine the UCR of the army in Melee situations. A unit with howdahs can make ranged attacks; however, the larger and generally much stronger creature bearing the howdah is not the creature making those ranged attacks, so its base CR is not used to determined the howdah army’s RV (unless the base creature is a dragon, manticore, or similar creature with its own powerful ranged attack). Instead, its RV is based on the CR of the creatures riding in the howdah, which is treated for this purpose (and for the purpose of recruiting, manpower, and effects on the kingdom if these soldiers are killed) as a separate army of smaller creatures. It does not have its own separate Consumption, nor does it count against the nation’s Command Limit. If the mount army is defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed, the rider army suffers the same fate.
    • Grand: Grand howdahs are mounted on creatures three size categories larger than the howdah’s riders. A grand howdah carries 10 soldiers, so its RV is determined as an army three size categories larger than the mount army.
    • Light: Light howdahs are mounted on creatures two size categories larger than the howdah’s riders (such as humans and elephants). A light howdah carries 4-5 soldiers, so the RV of the howdah army is determined as an army two size categories larger than the mount army.
  • Mixed Unit: The unit incorporates soldiers with skills and abilities different than those of the main body. You may add one special abilities to your unit if they do not already have it. You purchase this resource multiple times for the same unit. Each time you add this resource, the unit's Consumption increases by half of its UCR. This resource requires buidlings that allow the creation of soldiers with the desired ability.
  • Mounts: The unit is mounted on horses or other war-trained animals. The unit's Speed is equal to the mount's movement speed. If your unit uses mounts that are more powerful than the units themselves, your unit's UCR and derived scores might increase (see UCR).
    • Heavy: The unit's mounts are equipped with armored barding.
    • Light: The unit's mounts have no additional protection other than their natural armor.
  • Potions, Healing: Units with healing potions can use the Magical Healing command boon on themselves on a one-time basis. Unlike most equipment, training time is not required to use healing potions. Once used, they must be replaced before being usable again.
  • Potions, Magic: Units with magic potions can choose any one of the following effects that they can use as a single use special ability that lasts for the duration of one Battle phase: elemental resistance 10 (choose one type of energy), magic weapons, aligned weapons (overcome superior damage reduction), climb (Speed 1), defense (+2 DV), flight (Speed 5), invisibility (+4 Morale check to disengage, +2 Camouflage).
  • Shields: The unit is equipped with shields.
    • Adamantine: Adamantine doubles the shield resource's bonus to DV.
    • Magic: The unit's shield resource is magically enhanced.
  • Siege Weapon: Unlike other resources, the cost of a siege weapon is made on an individual basis, and does not scale with the unit's size. A siege weapon requires mounts or other beasts-of-burden to transport it which determines its cost and speed. In addition to their normal bonuses, siege weapons deal reduces the target enemy unit's DV at the start of the Ranged Phase. Except for close siege weapons, this resource increases its unit's range limit to three zones away.
    • Close: These heavy rams, picks, tumbling flails, and battle-wagons can attack only in Melee, and generally are deployed in conjunction with movable mantlets and galleries or even full-blown siege towers. Each close siege weapons reduce the enemy's DV by 1d4, but only at beginning of the Melee Phase.
    • Heavy: These massive siege engines, like large mangonels, and trebuchets, can be placed within the Camp zone and still be able to make ranged attacks against enemy forces. They cannot be attacked in return except by other heavy siege weapons or by an army with the Magical Bombardment command boon. Each heavy firearm siege weapons reduce the enemy's DV by 2d4.
    • Heavy Firearm: These massive firearm siege engines, like bombards, can be placed within the Camp zone and still be able to make ranged attacks against enemy forces. They cannot be attacked in return except by other heavy siege weapons or by an army with the Magical Bombardment command boon. Each heavy siege weapons reduce the enemy's DV by 4d4.
    • Light: These light weapons, including smaller ballistae, catapults, and springals, must attack from the Ranged zone. Each light siege weapons reduce the enemy's DV by 1d4.
    • Light Firearm: These light firearm weapons, including cannons, and mortars, must attack from the Ranged zone. Each light firearm siege weapons reduce the enemy's DV by 3d4.
    • Magic: This resource benefit applies to an individual siege engine. Magic siege weapons gain a +1 bonus to how much they reduce the enemy's DV.
  • Weapons: When a unit is created, it is automatically equipped with non-reach simple melee weapons.
    • Adamantine: This resource applies to both melee and ranged weapons. Stacks with the Magic. Exclusive with Superior.
    • Aetherium: This resource applies to both melee and ranged weapons, and allows the unit to ignore
    • Magic: This resource benefit applies to both melee and ranged weapons. It overlaps and does not stack with superior weapons (and can be upgraded from superior weapons).
    • Ranged: The unit is equipped with ranged weapons (such as crossbows, slings, or bows), and may make ranged attacks (see RV).
    • Reach: The unit is equipped with reach weapons such as longspears, glaives, and other polearms. Reach weapons provide a DV bonus that applies only against armies with mounts or armies that are not already engaged with you. An army cannot use Reach Weapons during any Battle Phase in which it uses Ranged Weapons or Shields.
    • Superior: This resource benefit applies to both melee and ranged weapons. It is overlapped and does not stack with magic weapons, but it can be upgraded them. Exclusive with Adamantine and Aetherium.

Table: Army Resources

Resource Cost MV RV DV Consumption Speed Requirement
Armor, Heavy 8 BP +2 -10 ft. Foundry, Smith, Tannery
Armor, Magic 16 BP +11 Magic Shop, Smith, Tannery
Armor, Medium 2 BP +1 -10 ft. Smith, Tannery
Chariots, Heavy mount's CR + 9 +2 +0 +1 mount's CR2 as mount - 10 ft. Smith, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Chariots, Light mount's CR + 3 +1 +0 mount's CR2 as mount Smith, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Engineers 1 BP Academy, Exotic Artisan, or Military Academy
Firearms, Advanced 40 BP +3 2 Alchemist, Foundry, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Firearms, Early 16 BP +1 2 Alchemist, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Howdahs, Grand mount's CR + 14 +1 +2 mount's CR2 as mount - 10 ft. Exotic Artisan, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Howdahs, Light mount's CR + 6 +0 +1 mount's CR2 as mount Exotic Artisan, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Mixed Unit 1/2 UCR 1/2 UCR Varies
Mounts, Heavy mount's CR + 4 +2 mount's CR/2 as mount - 10 ft. Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Mounts, Light mount's CR +1 mount's CR/2 as mount Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Potions, Healing 4 BP Alchemist or Temple
Potions, Magic 8 BP Alchemist, Caster’s Tower, Sacred Grove, or Temple
Shields 1 BP +1 Smith or Tannery
Shields, Magic 16 BP +11 Magic Shop, Smith or Tannery
Siege Weapons, Close mount's CR + 5 +2 +2 mount's CR as mount - 10 ft. Exotic Artisan, Stable
Siege Weapons, Light mount's CR + 1 +1 mount's CR2 as mount Exotic Artisan, Stable
Siege Weapons, Light Firearm mount's CR + 5 +3 mount's CR2 as mount Alchemist, Exotic Artisan, Foundry, Stable
Siege Weapons, Heavy mount's CR + 3 +2 mount's CR2 as mount - 10 ft. Exotic Artisan, Stable
Siege Weapons, Heavy Firearm mount's CR + 12 +5 mount's CR2 as mount - 10 ft. Alchemist, Exotic Artisan, Foundry, Stable
Siege Weapons, Magic 48 BP +2 +2 Exotic Artisan, Magic Shop
Weapons, Magic 24 BP +2 +2 Smith, Magic Shop
Weapons, Ranged 1 BP +0 2
Weapons, Reach 1 BP +1
Weapons, Superior 4 BP +1 +1 Smith
1 The DV bonus for magic armor can be applied to ordinary armor but also stacks with Medium and Heavy Armor. The bonus for Magic Shields also stacks but requires Shields.
2 An army with Ranged Weapons increases its Consumption by 1 (1d4 for Early Firearms, Light Firearm Siege Weapon or Heavy Siege Weapons, and 2d4 for Advanced Firearms or Heavy Firearm Siege Weapon) during any week in which it participates in a battle.

Special Abilities

  • Ability Modifier: When an army is comprised of a humanoid race with a modifier to its physical ability scores, it affects the combat statistics of the armies they comprise:
    • Strength: The army gains a +1 bonus to MV if its soldiers gain a bonus to Strength, -1 if they have a penalty.
    • Dexterity: The army gains a +1 bonus to RV if its soldiers gain a bonus to Dexterity, -1 if they have a penalty.
    • Constitution: The army gains 1 additional hit point and a +1 bonus to Morale checks to avoid fatigue if its soldiers have a bonus to Constitution, -1 if they have a penalty.
  • Ability Damage or Drain (alternate): When you successfully attack in melee, the defending unit takes a -1d4 penalty to MV, RV, and DV for the remainder of the battle.
  • Alchemy (Alchemist 1): Once per battle, the army can heal itself as if it had the healing potions resource. This doesn’t cost BP.
  • Amorphous: This unit is immune to critical hits in mass combat; when an attacking unit rolls a natural 20 on its attack, they deal normal damage.
  • Amphibious: The army can move in or across bodies of water and ignore Defense from water barriers.
  • Animal Companion (Druid 1, Ranger 4): The army’s animal companions increase the army’s MV by 1.
  • Aquatic: The army increases its MV and DV by 1 against armies in the water or on ships. The army decreases its MV by 2 against armies on land (unless the army also has the amphibious special ability, in which case it doesn’t have this MV penalty).
  • Arcane Spellcasting: An army comprised of arcane spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities can make use of the Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery command boons, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each boon; they do not need a leader to grant those boons.
  • Aura of Courage (Paladin 3): The army is immune to fear effects and automatically succeeds at Morale checks to avoid a rout.
  • Armor Training (Fighter 3): This class feature adjusts the base speed of units in medium armor; adjust the army’s speed accordingly.
  • Bane (Inquisitor 5): Once per day, an army with this ability can gain a +1 bonus to OM to one attack. If successful, the attack deals an extra 1d3 points of damage. This ability affects only a single attack, even if this army would be eligible to make an extra attack later in the Melee phase, such as against a retreating army.
  • Banner (Cavalier 5, Samurai 5): An army with this ability gains a +1 bonus to Morale checks to avoid routing, and it gains a +1 bonus to MV when using any of the following Tactics: Cavalry Experts, Furious Charge, Overwhelming Onslaught, Pursuit.
  • Bleed: When this army deals damage in melee, the target army takes an automatic 1d6 points of damage at the start of the next phase.
  • Blindsense: The army reduces its MV and DV penalties by half from darkness, invisibility, and weather, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Blindsight: The army takes no penalties to its MV and DV from darkness, invisibility, or weather, and gains a +10 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Bomb (Alchemist 1): This ability functions as the breath weapon ability.
  • Bravery (Fighter 2): Apply the unit’s bravery bonus on Morale checks against fear and routs.
  • Brawlers: An army whose members possess the augmented critical, rake, or rend abilities gains +1 MV for each ability it possesses when attacking an army with which it is already engaged.
  • Breath Weapon: The army can make ranged attacks. In the Ranged and Melee phases, it deals +1 points of damage per 3 dice of damage (rounding down) that your breath weapon deals.
  • Brew Potion (Alchemist 1): The army can create healing potions for itself or another army without needing any of the building requirements described in the healing potion resource. You must pay the BP cost for these potions as normal.
  • Burn: This ability functions as bleed.
  • Burrow: The army can dig under one fortification (or City Walls) by spending a Ranged or Melee phase moving. In later phases, it ignores that fortification’s Defense. During the phase the army uses burrow, it can attack or be attacked only by armies using burrow or earth glide.
  • Cannibalize: Reduce Consumption by 1 (minimum 0) for any week in which the army wins a battle and is allowed to feed on fallen corpses.
  • Challenge (Cavalier 1): Once per battle, the army may increase its OM by 2 against a target army, but it also reduces its DV by 1 against attacks from any army that is not the target army. These effects last for the rest of the battle.
  • Channel Negative Energy (Cleric 1): In the Melee phase, the army deals +1d4 points of damage against a living target army. If the army with this ability is undead, instead of dealing extra damage to an enemy army, it can use this ability to heal itself; if it takes an OM penalty equal to half its UCR for one Ranged or Melee phase, it heals a number of hit points equal to its UCR.
  • Channel Positive Energy (Cleric 1, Paladin 4): In the Melee phase, the army deals +1d4 points of damage against an undead target army. Instead of dealing extra damage to an enemy army, the army can use this ability to heal itself; if it takes an OM penalty equal to half its UCR for one Ranged or Melee phase, it heals a number of hit points equal to its UCR.
  • Charger: An army whose members possess the pounce, powerful charge, or trample abilities gains +1 MV for each ability it possesses when attacking an army with which it is not already engaged.
  • Climb: The army treats the Defense of fortifications as 25% lower than normal. This benefit doesn’t apply if the fortification can’t reasonably be climbed (such as a moat or wall of force). An army with a climb speed can make melee attacks against armies inside a fortification, becoming engaged with that army with a successful attack (though they take a -1 penalty to DV when engaged in this way). If they successfully attack an army inside a fortification in consecutive Melee phases, they can subsequently attempt to disengage inside the fortification, ignoring its Defense value for the remainder of the battle (but losing the ability to use the Retreat tactic for the remainder of the battle).
  • Combat Style (Ranger 2): Once per battle, increase the army’s OM by 1 for the rest of the battle.
  • Create Sandstorm: Once per battle, the army can affect the field of battle with the sandstorm battlefield condition. The sandstorm lasts for the rest of the battle.
  • Create Spawn: If the army destroys a living army of equal or greater size, it may immediately recover a number of hit points equal to twice its ACR or create a new army of its type but two sizes smaller than itself.
  • Construct: The army is immune to disease, fear, paralysis, and poison, and never rout or become fatigued.
  • Create Spawn: If an army with the energy drain ability destroys a living humanoid army of equal or greater size, it may add a new unit of its own type to itself; an army with 5 units already cannot create spawn.
  • Damage Reduction (Greater): An army gains a +2 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/chaotic, evil, good, or lawful, or DR/magic. Attacking armies cannot ignore this bonus unless they have appropriately aligned weapons or natural attacks or if they are attacking with magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Damage Reduction (Improved): An army gains a +2 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/bludgeoning, cold iron, piercing, silver, or slashing. Armies with superior weapons or magic weapons ignore this bonus. Attacking armies that have magical weapons or have damage reduction (magic) themselves ignore this, as do magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Damage Reduction (Magic): This army gains a +2 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/magic. Attacking armies that have magical weapons or have damage reduction (magic) themselves ignore this, as do magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Darkvision: The army takes no OM or DV penalties in dim light or darkness.
  • Discovery (Alchemist 2): This ability functions as bleed.
  • Disease: If the army damages an enemy, the enemy becomes diseased and takes a cumulative –1 penalty to its OM and DV each day after the battle. Curing the disease requires a successful Stability check modified by this penalty, and allows the army to reduce this penalty by 1 each day thereafter until the penalty is gone.
  • Divine Bond (Paladin 5): This army gains either Magical Weapons or Heavy Mounts for one Battle round per day. This does not affect the army’s Consumption.
  • Divine Health (Paladin 3): The army is immune to disease.
  • Divine Spellcasting: An army comprised of divine spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities can make use of the Magical Advantage, Magical Healing, or Magical Protection command boons, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each boon; they do not need a leader to grant those boons.
  • Dwarven Resilience: An army of dwarves does not have its movement rate reduced when wearing Medium Armor or Heavy Armor and gains a +1 bonus to DV and Morale checks to resist poison and magical effects. The army also gains a +2 DV bonus against armies comprised of creatures with the giant subtype.
  • Earth Glide: The army ignores fortifications made of earth or stone and can burrow under other fortifications as if using the burrow special ability.
  • Eidolon (Summoner 1): This ability functions as the animal companion ability.
  • Elven Grace: An army of elves gains a +1 bonus to Morale checks to resist Magical Trickery and a +1 bonus to scouting checks.
  • Endurance (Ranger 3): An army with this ability gains a +2 bonus to Morale checks to avoid fatigue or endure the effects of extreme climates.
  • Energy Drain: If the army damages an enemy, it reduces the enemy’s OM and DV by 1 for 24 hours, and the attacking army removes 2 Casualties each time it damages a living army.
  • Energy Immunity: An army with this ability takes no damage from attacks of the energy type to which it is immune.
  • Energy Resistance: An army with this ability gains a +1 DV bonus for each 10 points of resistance. This bonus affects only Breath Weapons, Burn, Magical Artillery, Magical Barrage, and special siege weapon attacks using that energy type.
  • Evasion (Monk 2, Rogue 2): An army that attacks this army halves its MV bonus from the spellcasting ability and halves the extra damage from the breath weapon ability.
  • Fast Healing: Each Ranged or Melee phase, this army regains a number of hit points equal to half its fast healing value. Outside of battle, each hour the army regains a number of hit points equal to its fast healing value.
  • Favored Enemy (Ranger 1): The army increases its MV and RV by 1 against an army of a type of creature chosen from the ranger favored enemy list.
  • Favored Terrain (Ranger 3): Reduce an enemy’s bonuses from advantageous terrain and battlefield advantage by half, gains a +1 bonus to both Scouting and Camouflage and can use the Living off the Land command boon whenever they are in their favored terrain.
  • Ferocity: The army continues to fight even if demoralized or nearly dead. If the army is defeated or routed, it may continue to act for one more Melee phase, and its OM and DV are reduced by 4 for that phase. The unit can also attack even when it has taken all of its Casualties (though not if it is destroyed). Creatures with the orc ferocity racial trait or its equivalent also gain this ability.
  • Fiendish Boon (Antipaladin 5): This army gains either Magical Weapons or Heavy Mounts for one Melee Phase per day. This does not affect the army’s Consumption.
  • Flight: If the army doesn’t attack in the Melee phase, it can’t be attacked with melee attacks except by an army with flight. The army ignores Defense bonuses from City Walls, but not other fortifications.
  • Flurry of Blows (Monk 1): In the first Melee phase, increase the army’s MV by 1. In the second and subsequent Melee phases, increase it by 2 instead.
  • Grab: The army’s units latch onto their opponents, making it difficult to escape. The target army takes a –2 penalty on Morale checks to resist a rout or use the withdraw tactic.
  • Greater Animal Companion (Druid 4, Ranger 7): The army’s animal companions allow the army to attack climbing, flying, or swimming armies in melee, with a -4 penalty to MV. When fighting an army on the ground, the animal companions can serve as Light Mounts without increasing the army’s Consumption.
  • Greater Favored Enemy (Ranger 5): This army increases its MV and RV by 2 against an army comprised of one creature type and by +1 against a second creature type. If attacking a mounted army, if this bonus applies against either the mount or the rider’s creature type, it applies against that army.
  • Greater Inspire Courage (Bard 7): This army gains a +2 bonus to MV and RV and a +3 bonus to Morale checks to avoid routing. In addition, when they are engaged with an enemy army, any allied army engaged with the same enemy army gains the same bonuses. They also share these bonuses with any allied army using the Screening Defense tactic to protect them (or vice versa).
  • Halfling Luck: An army of halflings gains a +1 bonus to all Morale checks.
  • Hex (Witch 1): When you create an army with this ability, choose either healing or cauldron.
    • Cauldron:/ The army can create healing potions for itself or another army without needing any of the building requirements described in the healing potion resource. You must pay the BP cost for these potions as normal.
    • Healing:// Once per battle, the army can heal a number of hit points equal to half its ACR.
  • Hunter’s Bond (Ranger 4): When you create an army with this ability, choose either companions or animal.
    • Companions: Once per battle, the army may increase its MV and RV or an allied army’s MV or RV by 1 for the rest of the battle.
    • Animal: This ability functions as animal companion.
  • Immunity: If an army is immune to a particular special ability (such as poison), an enemy army with that ability doesn’t gain those benefits against this army. For an army with many immunities, also see significant defense.
  • Improved Uncanny Dodge (Barbarian 5, Rogue 8): An army with this ability negates any bonuses an attacking army would gain from any of the following Tactics: Expert Flankers, False Retreat, Pincer Maneuver.
  • Incorporeal: The army takes no damage from non-magical attacks, and only half damage from magical attacks. It ignores enemy DV bonuses from armor resources. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw. It has a mobility advantage in all kinds of terrain.
  • Inspire Courage (Bard 1): The army increases its MV and RV by 1 and gains a +2 bonus on Morale checks against fear and routs. Alternatively, the army may apply these bonuses to an allied army in the same battle.
  • Invisibility: Any army attacking this army takes a –2 penalty to its MV and RV for that attack. Any army attacked by this army takes a –2 penalty to its DV against its attacks. Armies that can’t see invisible creatures can’t prevent this army from withdrawing. This army gains a +10 bonus to its Camouflage score.
  • Judgment (Inquisitor 1): Once each Ranged or Melee phase, the army may choose to increase its damage by 1, increase its DV by 1, heal a number of hit points equal to half its ACR, or treat its attacks as magic weapons. This ability is suspended for any phase in which the army is unable to attack because of fear, and ends immediately if the army routs.
  • Ki Pool (Monk 4): The unit’s attacks count as magic weapons.
  • Lay on Hands (Paladin 2): This ability functions as channel positive energy.
  • Light Blindness: A unit of creatures with this special quality take penalties in bright light (see Visibility) as other creatures would take in darkness.
  • Light Sensitivity: A unit of creatures with this special quality takes penalties in bright light (see Visibility) as other creatures would take in dim light.
  • Low-Light Vision: The unit takes no penalties for dim light.
  • Marksmanship (Gunslinger 7, Ranger 6 with Improved Precise Shot, Fighter 4 with Precise Shot and Weapon Focus and Weapon Specialization with a ranged weapon): An army with this ability ignores up to 2 points of Defense bonus that a defending army gains from terrain or fortifications. If shooting at an enemy army engaged with a friendly army, you never inflict friendly fire damage.
  • Mercy (Paladin 3): An army with this ability can remove fatigue from itself when it heals itself with lay on hands. At the end of a battle, the army can cure a disease on one allied army.
  • Mindless: The army never fails Morale checks, but must always use standard tactics and strategy.
  • Mobility: If the units have a form of mobility that gives them an advantage in the battlefield’s terrain (such as boggards in a swamp), increase the army’s OM by 1 for that battle against armies without such mobility.
  • Mount (Cavalier 1): The unit gains the Mounts resource for free.
  • Orcish Ferocity: An army of half-orcs or orcs gains the Ferocity special ability and gains a +1 bonus to opposed Morale checks when fighting an unit that has taken more casualties than they have.
  • Order (Cavalier 1): When using the challenge ability, increase the unit’s DV by 1 against the challenged army.
  • Paralysis: Each time the unit damages an enemy unit, reduce the enemy unit’s DV by 1 and its Speed by 10 ft. If the enemy unit's speed reaches 0, that unit can continue to fight but cannot move, disengage, retreat, or withdraw, nor can it prevent enemy armies from disengaging or attack them when they do. The effects of paralysis can be removed by the Magical Healing ability. In addition, a unit can attempt a Morale check at the beginning of the next Rout phase to reduce the DV penalty caused by paralysis by 1, and the speed penalty by 10 ft.
  • Petrification: This ability functions as paralysis, but this effect cannot be removed by Magical Healing.
  • Plant: The army is immune to fear, paralysis, and poison.
  • Poison Resistance (Alchemist 2): If the army takes poison damage, reduce the damage by half of the unit’s poison resistance bonus.
  • Poison: This ability functions as bleed.
  • Pounce: The army increases its MV by 1.
  • Powerful Charge: The army increases its MV by 1.
  • Psionic Manifesting: An army comprised of psionic manifesters or creatures with psi-like abilities can make use of the Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery command boons, provided its members have psionic or psi-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each boon; they do not need a leader to grant those boons.
  • Psychic Spellcasting: An army comprised of psychic spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities can make use of the Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery command boons, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each boon; they do not need a leader to grant those boons.
  • Rage (Barbarian 1): Once per battle, the commander may order the army to rage. Increase the army’s MV by 2, decrease its DV by 1, and add a +1 bonus on its Morale checks against fear and routing. While this is in effect, the army can’t use the tactics cautious combat, defensive wall, expert flankers, hold the line, sniper support, or withdraw; nor can it use the defensive or cautious strategies. If using such a tactic or strategy, you immediately switch to the standard tactic or strategy.
  • Rake: The army increases the damage it deals by 1.
  • Regeneration: The army regains a number of hit points equal to half its regeneration value each Ranged or Melee phase. When an army with regeneration is reduced to 0 hp, it is defeated only if at least one enemy army survives at the end of that phase to finish off the regenerating creatures. Outside of battle, the army regains a number of hit points equal to half its regeneration value each hour.
  • Rend: The army increases the damage it deals by 1.
  • Resistance: See the entry for significant defense.
  • Resolve (Samurai 2): Once per battle, an army with this ability can remove the fatigued condition from itself or can reroll any Morale check.
  • Rock Catching: The army increases its DV by 1 against ranged attacks. This increases by an additional 1 if the army is attacked with siege weapons or thrown rocks.
  • Rock Throwing: The army can make ranged attacks. In the Ranged phase, it deals +4 points of damage.
  • Rogue Talent (Rogue 2): The army gains the bleed ability.
  • Scent: The army reduces its MV and DV penalties from darkness, invisibility, and weather by half, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Shield Ally (Summoner 4): Increase the army’s DV by 1.
  • Significant Defense: The army has a significant defense such as powerful damage reduction or numerous immunities and/or resistances. Increase its DV by 10, but only against armies that can’t overcome those defenses. In some cases, the GM might rule that an army is simply undefeatable by an enemy army because of its defenses (though the GM should never pit the PCs against such an army unless the PCs initiate a foolish battle).
  • Smite Evil (Paladin 1): In one Tactical phase per battle, the army may increase its OM by 2 against an evil army. If the target army is undead or evil outsiders, the OM increases by 4 instead. In addition, when this ability is used, this army’s attacks ignores any damage reduction if the defending army is evil. This ability can be used in only one Battle Turn per day.
  • Smite Good (Antipaladin 1): This functions identically to Smite Evil, but with an enhanced effect against good creatures.
  • Sneak Attack (Ninja 1, Rogue 1): The army increases its MV and RV by 1 when making an ambush, on the phase after using the False Retreat tactic, or in conjunction with the Pincer Maneuver Tactic or the Expert Flankers or Wolves in the Fold command boons. In addition, on a successful attack when using this ability, the attack deals an additional +1 point of damage for every 2 levels of the ninjas or rogues in the army over 1st.
  • Spell Resistance: This army gains +1 DV and a +1 bonus to Morale per 5 points of spell resistance, but these bonuses apply only when an attacking army uses the Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, or Magical Trickery command boons.
  • Stunning Fist (Monk 1): This ability functions as paralysis.
  • Swarm: The army takes half damage from non-magical attacks, but 1-1/2 times as much damage from magical attacks. It ignores DV bonuses from armor resources. It can’t harm an army with the incorporeal or significant defense ability. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw.
  • Tactician (Cavalier 1): The army automatically learns one tactic (usually the cavalry experts tactic); this doesn’t count toward an army’s maximum number of known tactics.
  • Teleportation: The army ignores the Defense of fortifications. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw. Ethereal travel and similar effects also grant this ability. An army with teleportation can travel to any hex on the same day (its speed is irrelevant and not hampered by difficult terrain).
  • Touch Attack (Gunslinger 1, most spellcasting classes 1): An army able to make melee or ranged touch attacks ignores any DV bonuses provided by Medium Armor, Heavy Armor, or Shields.
  • Track (Inquisitor 2, Ranger 1): The army adds its ACR to Morale checks to prevent an army from using the withdraw tactic and to its DV to prevent ambushes. It reduces the damage it deals in fog by one quarter instead of one half, gains a +1 bonus to its Scouting score.
  • Trackless Step (Druid 3): An army with this ability gains a +1 bonus to its Camouflage score.
  • Trap Sense (Rogue 3): When using the siegebreaker tactic, the army adds half its ACR to the Offense check to determine if a siege engine is destroyed.
  • Tremorsense: The army reduces its MV and DV penalties from darkness, invisibility, and weather by half, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Trip: Each Melee phase, the target enemy army reduces its DV by 1 and takes a -10 ft. Speed penalty until the end of the current Melee phase.
  • Uncanny Dodge (Barbarian 2, Rogue 4): If an army with this ability is ambushed, the attacking army must resolve the attack as a normal attack. An army with this ability is unaffected by Feint tactics.
  • Undead: The army is immune to disease, fear, paralysis, and poison. Its DV increases by 2.
  • Unnatural Aura: This ability functions as fear, but applies only to animals (including animal mounts).
  • Vortex: This ability functions as paralysis, but only against targets on or in the water and if the attacking army chooses to remain engaged with the defending army. An army with this ability gains +1 OM against swimming or shipboard armies and can automatically disengage from them after attacking in melee, and automatically succeeds at opposed checks to retreat or withdraw. An army with vortex can also attack two swimming or shipboard armies in the same Melee phase, making separate Melee attacks against each and dealing half damage with each attack. The Screening Defense tactic is ineffective against an army with the vortex ability.
  • Weapon Specialization (Fighter 4): Once per battle, increase the army’s OM for either ranged or melee attacks by 2.
  • Whirlwind: This ability functions as paralysis, only if the attacking army chooses to remain engaged with the defending army. An army with this ability gains +1 OM against flying armies and can automatically disengage from any army after attacking in melee, automatically succeeding at opposed checks to retreat or withdraw. An army with the whirlwind ability can also attack two armies in the same Melee phase, making separate Melee attacks against each and dealing half damage with each attack. The Screening Defense tactic is ineffective against an army with the whirlwind ability.
  • Wild Empathy (Druid 1, Ranger 1): An army with this ability gains a +1 DV bonus against armies that include animals, including animals with mounts.
  • Wild Shape (Druid 4:) Once per battle, the army may gain the aquatic, amphibious, climb, darkvision, flight, low-light vision, or scent special abilities, but loses the spellcasting ability while this is in effect. The army can end this ability in any later phase.
  • Woodland Stride (Druid 2, Ranger 7): An army with this ability ignores penalties from rough terrain (see Terrain) comprised of plants, undergrowth, and trees.

Example Army

Iron Watch
LN
ACR
Army Commander Argus Rosencrantz DeMonteblanco
UNITS
Elite Squad
Unit Leader
Veteran Platoon
1st Company
2nd Company
3rd Company

On the March


Army Logistics

"The line between disorder and order lies in logistics…"
–Sun Tzu

"An army marches on its stomach."
—Napolean Bonaparte

Armies cost Consumption each week that they are kept in the field, or each month that they are garrisoned. An army can always be created in one place and moved to another location to be garrisoned there. It is considered to be in the field while moving its base of operations, and must pay that consumption for that week, but if it reaches its destination in less than a week, it can be treated as being garrisoned, and must pay consumption only once more for the remainder of the month. To be garrisoned, an army must be assigned to a settlement or hex with enough buildings to accommodate the army's total number of troops.

Watchtower: Up to 50 troops.
Barracks: Up to 100 troops.
Castle: Up to 200 troops.
Garrison: Up to 500 troops.
Fort: Up to 2,000 troops.

An army's base consumption is equal to half its CR (rounded down, minimum 1), paid at the beginning of each week (or month). If you don't pay, its Morale goes down by 2; if it the army's Morale reaches -5, the army disbands. If an army disbands from lack of pay, your nation suffers -2 penalty to your nation's Stability, Economy, and Loyalty for the next 12 months.

Consumption is paid by the BP in the army's Supplies. When garrisoned in a settlement, army's supply of BP can be replenished by the nation's General's leadership action during the nation's Decision Phase. When the army is deployed to the field or garrisoned in a terrain improvement, the BP needs to be transported to them via another army unit. An army's supply of BP can be looted by another army when defeated, or could be left remaining on the field. An army can carry an amount of BP up to six times its ACR without slowing down; the army's speed is reduced by 10 feet when its supply of BP exceeds this limit, and further decreases by 10 feet for every six times its ACR increment it exceeds the limit (to a minimum movement speed of 10 feet).

Living Off the Land: Armies with the Living Off the Land command boon are highly skilled at surviving in the wild. Any army can attempt to supply itself by foraging and hunting, reducing its Consumption by half for one week. This requires a DC 10 Morale check, though the DC increases by 1 for every 100 soldiers in the army. Each time an army attempts to live off the land in the same hex, the DC increases by 1. Once a check is failed, that hex is exhausted in terms of available game. The type of terrain and the weather can affect your ability to forage; see Table: Terrain and Weather Effects on Foraging. The terrain and weather modifiers stack together.
    Armies can choose to commandeer resources from people living in the hex, or simply rob them and pillage their supplies. This adds a bonus of +1d6 to the Morale check, +2d6 in a hex with farms, but each hex you pillage results in -1 Loyalty and +1 Infamy.

Table: Terrain and Weather Effects on Foraging

Terrain Morale Check Modifier
Arctic, Desert -4
Cavern, Mountains, Tundra -2
Coastline, River1 +1
Forest, Hills, Marsh, Plains, Water +0
Weather Morale Check Modifier
Extreme Cold or Heat, Rainstorm, Strong Wind -2
Fog, High Altitude, Rain -1
Mist +0
Severe Wind, Snow -4
Hurricane, Sand/Snow/Windstorm 2
1Stacks with adjacent land terrain.
2Impossible to forage in this weather.

Pillage and Plunder: The equipment and supplies of a defeated army or unit can be taken by the victors in a battle as spoils of war. These spoils are worth a number of BP equal to 1/4 the ACR of an army that is defeated, or 1/2 the ACR of an army that has been disbanded or destroyed. The victorious army adds these spoils to their supplies.
    In addition, an army of 50 or more soldiers can be sent into any hex containing terrain improvements, spending one day burning fields, slaughtering herds, tearing down buildings, and generally wreaking havoc. At the end of each day, one terrain improvement in that hex that the army’s commander wishes to destroy is destroyed unless the nation that owns the hex succeeds at a Stability check with a -1 penalty for every 50 soldiers engaged in pillaging their land. A successful Stability check preserves that improvement, but if the pillaging armies undertake another day of destruction this Stability check must be repeated, with an additional -5 penalty for every day after the first. Pillaging armies add 1d4 BP to their supplies for each improvement they destroy.
    Finally, armies can pillage a settlement whose defenders all have been defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed. The pillaging army spends one day of looting per district, adding 1d4+1 BP to their supplies for each district looted.

Contesting Territory

When your army enters a hex claimed by another nation, it can spend a day to take control of its infrastructure. The hex then becomes contested by your nation. The hex and its improvements still belong to its original nation, but they no longer provide any benefits. A contested hex allows a supply line to be established in the other nation's territory. You can contest a hex with a settlement in it, but the settlement continues to provide its benefits to its nation.
    Hexes claimed by your nation that are contested can be reclaimed by an army spending a day in that hex to retake control. The hex must not contain any enemy armies in it.

Scouting and Camouflage

"All warfare is based on deception."
–Sun Tzu, The Art of War

In most cases, armies travel in the open, with little effort at stealth. As a result, detection of enemy armies is considered to be automatic for any enemy armies that are in the same hex. However, armies can bivouac under cover to hide their presence, and by moving at half speed they can remain largely out of sight. Note that if an army would already be moving at only 1 hex per day, it must use a forced march (see below) to continue moving at 1 hex per day while using camouflage.

Scout Check: When scouting, the army commander substitutes Profession (soldier) with Knowledge (geography) to determine a special Leadership Bonus for scout checks known as LB (scout).

Scouting: An army’s Scouting modifier is equal to the highest Perception modifier of the creatures in the army divided by 4, plus the LB (scout) of its commander. To notice another moving army that is using camouflage, an army rolls 1d20 and adds its Scouting modifier against a DC equal to the enemy army’s base Camouflage score. A Scout check can only be done once per day or when an army moves to another hex. The commander's knowledge of the scouted area is updated every two hours.
    One of the army's units can be devoted to scouting a number of hexes away from the army depending on its size. Scouting units allow the army commander to know the position of any other army within the scouts' range. If the other army is using camouflage, then the unit's leader must make the Scout check to detect the other army. Aside from using camouflage, an army may also avoid detection by eliminating the opposing army's scouts. The army commander must make an LB check against the scout leader's Scout check. If the commander's check beats the Scout check, then the scouts in the army's hex are killed, and the scout unit takes 1 damage. If the commander's check exceeds the scout leader's check by 5 or more, the army remains undetected; otherwise the scouts are still killed, but the scout leader immediately learns of their loss. The army is detected if the scout leader's check beats the commander's check. When either army moves to another hex, the army commander must make another opposed LB check against the scout leader to eliminate the new set of scouts in the hex.
    While a unit is scouting, it cannot be deployed on the battlefield during mass combat until it has been recalled. The larger the scouting unit is, the more area it can cover (see Table: Unit Size and Scout Range). The time a scouting unit takes to be fully deployed depends on the unit's speed and the terrain, as determined in Table: Travel Time (1 hex) in the House Rules: Exploration & Movement section. When a scouting unit is recalled, the time it takes to regroup back at the army is increased by half, as time is needed to spread the word of the recall. If the area being scouted has more than one terrain type, then use the terrain with the slowest speed to calculate how much time it takes to deploy and recall the unit. If a scouting unit is recalled and reformed in the middle of a mass combat encounter, they appear in their army's Command Zone.
    A garrisoned army can also deploy one of its units to scout the area around the settlement or base. Even though the unit is deployed for scouting duties, it is still considered garrisoned at the base and its Consumption is still paid monthly.

Table: Unit Size and Scout Range

Unit Size Hexes Scouted
Solo 11
Squad 21
Platoon 1 hex radius
Reinforced Platoon 1 hex radius
Company 2 hex radius
Reinforced Company 3 hex radius
Battalion 5 hex radius
Reinforced Battalion 8 hex radius
Regiment 12 hex radius
1 The army commander selects which hexes adjacent to her army to scout. She may change these hexes every two hours.

Camouflage: An army’s ability to evade notice by other armies is reflected in its Camouflage score. The Camouflage score is equal to 10 plus the lowest Stealth modifier of the creatures comprising the army divided by 4, adding the leader’s LB (scout), and applying the Camouflage modifier noted in Table: Army Size. If a unit has Mounts, it uses the worse Stealth modifier of the riders or mounts. Since the size of an individual creature is already reflected in its Stealth score, it is not separately applied as a modifier to a unit’s Camouflage score. If no Stealth skill modifier is listed for a creature in its Bestiary entry, that modifier is equal to the creature’s Dexterity modifier, modified for its armor and by -4 per size category larger than Medium, +4 per size category smaller than Medium.
    When two armies enter adjacent hexes, each makes a Scouting check with a -5 penalty. If both succeed, both are aware of the other. If neither succeeds, neither is aware of the other, and the two armies may continue moving and could blunder into one another. If one army succeeds and the other fails, it can set an ambush for the other, lying in wait until the enemy army moves into its hex.

Ambushes: When one army is aware of another but has not been noticed itself, it is in position for an ambush. An army waiting in ambush gains a +5 bonus to its Camouflage score against an army that has already failed once to notice it. If the enemy army enters its square, it can trigger the ambush. At the start of the battle, all of the enemy army's units are considered to be in their Camp zone, and the ambushing army can deploy its units in any of their own zone plus the enemy's Front zone. For the duration of the ambush, the attacker gains the benefit of the Advanced Tactics command boon (gaining an additional +2 bonus to OM if it already has that boon). The ambusher also automatically gains Advantageous Terrain if available (see Battlefield Conditions). The enemy army is unable to act during any battle phase except for the Rout phase. If the enemy army survives and does not rout, the battle proceeds to the Tactics phase and initiative is rolled normally.
    If the enemy army fails to enter its hex, the ambushing army can hold its position and wait for the enemy army to spring the trap, or it can move to an adjacent hex and reset the ambush. Having to shift its position makes it easier to be discovered, and an ambushing army gains only a +2 bonus to Camouflage if it has to move.
    If more than two armies (one on each side) are present, then usually all armies on one side of the battle must remain undetected in order for the ambush to be fully effective. At the GM’s option, however, it is possible for one or more armies to remain hidden while some of their allied armies engage in battle in the open. At the beginning of every Rout phase that occurs, however, all enemy armies present can make a Scouting check to notice these armies hiding in preparation to ambush. Hidden armies gain a +2 bonus to their Camouflage score as long as they remain stationary; they get no bonus to Camouflage if they had to move from their original position to reset their ambush. If any unit is detected, enemy armies sound an alarm and their opportunity for ambush is lost. Armies that are undetected cannot be attacked by the enemy. When they launch their ambush, it occurs after all other attacks have been resolved, immediately before the Rout phase.

Visibility

In warfare, simply identifying friend from foe is not always easy, and this is especially true when some creatures have perceptual abilities far beyond those available in the real world. Creatures able to see in the dark have a great advantage in battles at night, while those sensitive to bright light avoid fighting by day if they can. Weather effects are described in the subsequent section, but the table below describes the effect of various illumination levels on general combat effectiveness on offense and defense, as well as the ability of armies to spot one another or even to move effectively. Creatures able to see normally in darkness take no penalties for fighting in it, while those sensitive to bright light take penalties in such conditions.
    Otherwise, all creatures present in a battle take the same penalties from poor visibility unless they have some special means of negating them.The Speed modifier below can never reduce an army’s movement below 10 feet.

Fog of War: Whenever an army takes a penalty to its MV and RV due to poor visibility, its chance of shooting awry increases.
    When attacking an army that is engaged with an allied army during the Ranged phase, the chance of dealing friendly fire damage (see Ranged Phase) is increased to 50%. In addition, even attacks during the Melee phase against an army engaged with an ally have a 25% of dealing damage as friendly fire to your allied army.
    If you attack an army that is not engaged with any other army (including yours) using one of the following tactics, the attacking army has a 25% chance of inflicting friendly fire damage on itself due to the fog of war: Cavalry Sweep, False Retreat, Furious Charge, Feint, Overwhelming Onslaught, Pincer Maneuver, Pursuit, Skirmishers.

Table: Visibility

Visibility Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Bright Light +2
Normal Light
Dim Light -1 -2 -2 -10 ft.
Darkness -2 -4 -1 -4 -20 ft.
Smoke, light1 -1 -2 -2
Smoke, thick2 -2 -4 -4 -10 ft.
1An army that has attacked with firearms or cannon during the current Battle phase is covered in light smoke, as is an army that has been attacked with a Magical Barrage, Special Bombardment, or similar attack using fire. Light smoke can also be created by intentionally setting fires or (at the GM’s option) by repeated casting of spells like control weather, fog cloud, obscuring mist, and pyrotechnics. If spells are used, they should generally apply their effects to both sides; for specifically targeted tactical battlefield use of obscuring magic, a commander within the army should use the Magical Trickery command boon.
2An army that has attacked with multiple fire attacks (such as those described in the above footnote) may at the GM’s option be shrouded in thick smoke. A settlement with an uncontrolled fire may also be covered in thick smoke.[[/size]]

Weather

Weather also can play a major role in a battle. There are general guidelines for factoring this into a battle in Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Ultimate Campaign, but presented below is a table for your reference translating the standard adventuring rules in the Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Core Rulebook into battlefield terms, along with special rules for how weather can interact with armies in the field.

Extreme Conditions: High altitude, extreme heat, and extreme cold force armies to make a Morale check at the end of each Rout phase to avoid becoming fatigued, with a -1 penalty for armies wearing Medium Armor, -2 for those wearing Heavy Armor.

Precipitation: Light rain and snow have a 10% cumulative chance for each Battle phase they continue of causing the battlefield to turn into treacherous terrain (see Terrain) due to the accumulation of snow or the liquefaction of the ground into mud. A rainstorm or snowstorm double this chance. This should be checked at the end of every Rout phase.

Temperature: Different temperature conditions can significantly impact an army's ability to travel and operate. Cold conditions require additional supplies to keep soldiers and beasts warm, such as additional clothing, fuel for sources of warmth, additional shelters. Heat conditions are less severe, but an army still requires additional supplies to keep cool and avoid heat stroke.

Wind: With very high winds, normal ranged attacks become impossible (indicated by the X above); however, siege weapons can still be used, as can magical attacks such as breath weapons or a Magical Barrage command boon. In addition, flying creatures and creatures on board wind-powered ships take double the listed penalties to OM.

Table: Weather

Weather Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Extreme Cold -1 -1 -10 ft.
Extreme Heat -1 -1 -10 ft.
Fog -2 -4 -4 -10 ft.
High Altitude -1 -1 -1 +1 -10 ft. (climb or fly speed is unaffected)
Mist -1 -2 -2
Rain -1 -1
Rainstorm -1 -2 -1 -2
Snow -1 -2 halved
Sand/Snowstorm -1 -2 -1 -4 halved
Wind, strong -2
Wind, severe -1 -4 -10 ft. (Medium or larger creatures can move normally)
Windstorm -2 X/-2 -2 -20 ft. (Large or larger creatures can move normally)
Hurricane -4 X/-4 -4 -30 ft. (Huge or larger creatures can move normally)

Table: Temperature

Temperature Upkeep Multiplier
Extreme cold x 6
Severe cold x 4
Cold x 2
Moderate x 1
Very hot x 1.5
Severe heat x 2
Extreme heat x 2.5

Mass Combat


Strategy

At the beginning of a battle, each army commander must decide upon its overall strategy for the battle, not in terms of the precise maneuvers that will be used but more in terms of its philosophy about how the battle is to be conducted. Selecting a strategy applies to all units in the commander’s army. While individual units may have their own specialized tactics that define how they carry out the overall strategy, that one overall strategy guides all of their actions on the battlefield.
    During each Tactical Initiative phase, the commander for each army can try to alter the strategy her forces pursue, adjusting it by one step in either direction without needing to make a Morale check. A commander can attempt to shift strategy to a greater degree, but this is difficult for all but the most highly trained armies, requiring a Morale check with a penalty equal to the number of steps by which strategy is being shifted. If the check fails, the army’s strategy changes one step in the desired direction, but the army is thrown into disarray for the remainder of that Melee phase, resulting in a penalty to Melee Value (MV), Range Value (RV), and Defensive Value (DV) equal to the number of steps the commander attempted to shift their strategy.

Table: Strategies

Type of Strategy MV and RV DV Casualties
Hold Firm -4 +4 -2
Cautious Advance -2 +2 -1
Standard
Aggressive Attack +2 -2 +1
All-Out Assault +4 -4 +2

The Casualties modifier applies to damage dealt by you and damage received from your enemies, including damage from failed attacks and friendly fire.

Battle Zones

When armies meet, the battlefield is divided into multiple zones of engagement. These are listed below, starting from furthest away from the center of the battle, to the nearest.

  • Camp: This represents an army’s base of operations, which may be a temporary bivouac or a permanent fortification. Army units in this zone are usually deployed here to protect the army's camp, and if need be, engage the enemy to delay them and allow the rest of the army to retreat.
  • Command: This is the area where the army’s leader directs the flow of battle. The army's leader must be at least this far in order to participate in the battle. Army units deployed in this zone are usually assigned to defend the army commander, or used as reserves and reinforcements for the front lines.
  • Rear: This represents the back lines of an army on the field, with forces usually arrayed to engage in ranged combat.
  • Front: This represents the front lines of any battle, where forces meet in close and brutal combat.

It is easier to visualize these zones as concentric circles with an army's Camp zone at the center. Each army has their own set of battle zones, and if you want your forces to reach the enemy's Command zone, you must advance your army through your own Front zone into the enemy's Front zone, then through their Rear zone, and finally into their Command zone.
    A unit that is within an army's Front zone (including its own army) can advance into the Front zone of any other army on the field of battle. However, if the unit moves deeper in such as the Rear or Command zones, it cannot move to another army's zone until it returns to the Front zone of the army it is in.
    At the beginning of the battle, unless otherwise stated, all units begin either in the Camp, Command, or Rear zones, as decided by the army commander.

Altitude Zones: Similar to battle zones, altitude zones are areas of the battlefield on a vertical axis, either above or below the surface. These zones exist only in relation of the standard ground or naval battle; battles that occur solely in the air or under water use only the standard battle zones and special elevation rules.

  • Seafloor: This is a special depth zone that applies whenever there is a submerged structure or terrain that is relevant to the course of a battle. The Seafloor can exist in the Abyssal, Deep or Shallow zones, depending on the depth of the water. A battle on the Seafloor works similarly to a second Surface depth level, in that creatures on the Seafloor and creatures in the adjoining Shallows or Deep can engage in ranged combat but cannot engage in melee unless either the swimming creatures come down to the Seafloor or the creatures on the Seafloor leave it and swim up into the open water.
  • Deep: Units in this depth zone cannot effectively see units on the surface or be seen by them, and are too far away to effectively attack or be attacked by them.
  • Shallow: Units in this depth zone are beyond the reach of melee attacks, except by other creatures that are also swimming in the shallows. However, they can still see creatures and vessels on the surface and can be seen themselves, though with some difficulty. Creatures in the shallows can attack with or be attacked by ranged attacks, though such attacks are made at a substantial penalty.
  • Surface: The zone represents the stable area that divides between the depths and altitudes, being either solid ground or the surface of water. Units in this zone are neither flying nor burrowing or diving, though they may be swimming upon the surface.
  • Low Altitude: Units in this altitude zone are well out of range of melee attacks but can attack with (and be attacked by) ordinary ranged attacks. Aerial units can attack at this range with dropped items with reasonable accuracy.
  • Medium Altitude: Units in this altitude zone fly on the fringes of the battle zone, able to attack with (and be attacked by) siege weapons and other effects with very long range but otherwise out of reach of standard ranged attacks. Aerial units at this altitude can attack with dropped items but with little accuracy.
  • High Altitude: Units in this altitude zone are too far away to effectively attack units on the ground or be attacked by them.

Battlefield Conditions

In some mass combats, the specifics of a battlefield won’t impact either army, but sometimes the battlefield will itself decide the outcome. The modifiers listed below apply only for the duration of the battle. Naturally, the GM should exercise judgment regarding any conditions that don’t seem to apply to one of the armies (such as darkness and an army with darkvision, or fog and an army with scent).
    At the GM’s discretion, large-area spells such as move earth might allow armies or commanders to manipulate the battlefield conditions before a conflict. For these spells to have any effect, they must last at least 1 hour and affect at least a 500-foot square. Likewise, magic items such as an instant fortress (+2 Defense) and spells such as wall of stone (+1 Defense) can create simple fortifications for an army to use in a battle.
    As soon as two enemy armies enter the same hex, and before the battle starts, each commander must make an opposed leadership check. The one with the higher result gets to decide where on the battlefield to place their Camp.

  • Fortifications: An army located in a fortification adds the fortification’s Defense to its DV. A settlement’s Defense is determined by the types of buildings it contains, as detailed in the nation-building rules. Fortifications prevent enemy units from using the Calvary Sweep and Furious Charge tactics against this unit.
  • Elevation: In hill and mountain terrain, some zones have higher ground than others. In the air or under water, units may have different altitudes. When two units engage in melee combat, the unit that entered the zone with higher elevation than the other unit first gains Advantage on melee attacks. Ranged units on higher elevation also gain Advantage on ranged attacks against units on lower elevation. If there is enough space, the disadvantaged unit may spend another battle turn to move up to equal elevation as the opposing unit.
  • Natural Obstacles: Some zones of the battlefield may contain natural obstacles, such as crevices, immense rubble, or thickets. Units in these zones move at half speed, and cannot use the Calvary Sweep and Furious Charge tactics. They also receive a +2 bonus to DV against ranged attacks.
  • River: If a hex contains a river and both opposing banks, and both armies entered the hex from opposing side of the river, then the river creates a River zone between the two armies' Front zones. Units must find a way to traverse the river to reach the opposing army's zones, such as a Bridge. Units with the flying or swimming special ability are able to cross the River zone as nomral.
  • Visibility: Visibility can drastically affect the battle; see Table:Visibility.
  • Weather: Weather can drastically affect the battle; see Table: Weather.

Army Engineering: An army with a unit with the Engineering quality can build temporary hex improvements to benefit their army. The hex must either be claimed by your nation and uncontested, or a foreign hex contested by your nation. The time it takes to build these improvements is reduced by a number of days equal to twice of the engineering unit's UCR (minimum 2 hours). Army engineering improvements are designed to be built fast and temporary, and will disappear after a week unless maintained. Maintaining an army improvement requires spending only half of the improvement's cost and time, and renews the improvement's time limit. Improvement costs are modified by the Terrain Cost Modifier as listed on Table: Terrain and Terrain Improvements.

Bridge
This hastily constructed bridge allows units to cross bodies of water or crevices. When not maintained, these bridges quickly collapse under the duress of the elements.
Effect: Army units are able to traverse the obstacle. Units gains Advantage on ranged attacks against units on a bridge.
Cost: 1 BP
Construction Time: 1 day.

Fortifications
Fortifications include temporary palisades, trenches, bunkers, and other constructed obstacles or defenses. Fortifications can be built for each battle zone. Your unit gains the fortification defense bonus by being in the same battle zone with them, and using the Hold action during the Ranged Phase to occupy them. The unit loses the DV bonus when it moves to another zone. Units from an allied unit can also occupy your fortifications if you allow it. Opposing units can occupy your fortifications if they are not occupied by your or your allies' units. When not maintained, these fortifications are swept away or fall apart by the elements.
Effect: +4 bonus to DV of all units occupying the fortifications.
Cost: 2 BP per zone.
Construction Time: 1 day per zone.

Obstacles
Obstacles are designed to slow the enemy's advance. These may involve barbed wire, ditches, stakes, or traps.
Effect: Same as Natural Obstacles. If the zone already has Natural Obstacles, additional obstacles reduce enemy unit speed to one quarter.
Cost: 2 BP per zone.
Construction Time: 1 day per zone.

Roads
This hastily dug-out road allows armies to more easily traverse a hex. When not maintained, these roads are easily washed away or become unusable by the elements.
Effect: Travel time through this hex is halved.
Cost: 1 BP
Construction Time: 1 day per hex.

Phases

Each round of a battle is split into several phases, taking about 2 hours in total. A unit becomes fatigued if it participates in the battle for at least 4 rounds without spending 2 consecurtive Melee phases to rest in the Camp zone.

  1. Tactical Phase: Each round of combat, the overall army commander can shift the overall strategy that all forces under her command will follow. In addition, each unit leader can decide what special tactics their unit will use to implement that strategy. These choices must be made before tactical initiative is determined.
    • Tactical Initiative: Each commander rolls 1d20 + their LB, and whichever commander rolls lowest on their check must reveal their strategy first. A commander with a higher check can change his strategy in response to his opponent’s, though moving strategy more than one step on Table: Strategy requires a Morale check to perform smoothly.
      • In addition to forcing his enemy to reveal his strategy first, if one commander’s check exceeds his opponent’s by 5 or more, he can either force his enemy to reveal one tactic or he can change one of his own army’s tactics for every 5 points by which his check exceeds his opponent’s. The commander can choose which army he wishes to learn about; if that army has more than one tactic available, it must reveal the tactic it is using during this Melee phase. Regardless of the result of your check, you can reveal only one tactic per enemy army or change one tactic for each of your armies; any excess is lost. Command boons and creature special abilities are not revealed by winning tactical initiative.
    • The commander in charge of each army rolls for the tactical initiative; the individual unit leaders do not. Winning tactical initiative provides a bonus of +1 to MV and RV for all units under the commander’s command. In addition, since units are modular, that means that combat is sequential rather than simultaneous. The commander that wins tactical initiative selects one unit to attack an enemy unit, followed by the enemy selecting one unit to attack in response. Attacks alternate from each commander until all units have attacked once. A unit that is destroyed, disabled, routed, or otherwise taken out of action before it has a chance to act forfeits its attack. If one side has more units than the other, when one side runs out of units to attack taking turns with its opponent, any leftover units from the larger army attack in succession until all have attacked.
  2. Ranged Phase: During this phase, any army or unit that is not engaged with an enemy force can make a ranged attack (assuming it has ranged weapons or other capabilities enabling ranged attacks to be made)
    • Range Attack: If your unit has a Ranged Value and is not engaged, then it can make a ranged attack against another unit up to 2 zones away.
    • Advance: If your unit is not engaged, then it can move into an adjacent zone. Units with a movement speed higher than 30 feet can move through 2 zones in one round. Units with a movement speed higher than 60 feet can move through 3 zones.
    • Hold: Your unit can remain in place, neither attacking nor advancing.
    • Friendly Fire: When a unit makes a ranged attack against an enemy unit that is engaged with one of your armies, it has a 25% chance of dealing 1d6-3 points of damage to the allied unit regardless of whether its attack is successful. If your ranged attack roll is a natural 1, your allied unit automatically takes 1d6-3 points of damage, while on a natural 20 your allied unit never takes damage from friendly fire. A unit taking damage from friendly fire loses 1 point of Morale.
  3. Melee Phase: During this phase, units may engage another unit in the same zone as itself, using a variety of special tactics to outmaneuver and destroy their opponents. Each unit resolves its attack as normal. Once all attacks each army proceeds to the Rout phase described below, and as long as at least one unit on each side survives without being routed, the battle enters a new round, with a new check to determine Tactical Initiative, as described in the Melee phase above.
    • Engagement: When a unit attacks another in melee, the units become engaged even if the attack fails. Engaged units are caught up in the fighting, and cannot leave the zone until all opposing units are defeated, destroyed, or routed from the field, or until one side performs a successful Retreat, Withdrawal, or similar tactic that allows it to disengage from its enemies and those enemies either cannot or choose not to pursue them.
    • Flanking: Your unit flanks an enemy unit when it attacks the enemy that is already engaged with an ally unit. Your unit must be in the same zone as the enemy unit. Flanking grants your unit advantage on melee attack roll. Both your unit and your ally unit gain the flanking advantage on the same enemy unit once you are both engaged with it.
  4. Rout Phase: After resolving Ranged and Melee phases for the round, each surviving unit must succeed at a Morale check to sustain its will to fight. After resolving all attacks in the Melee phase, each unit proceeds to the Rout phase, with each surviving unit making a Morale check with a DC of 10 plus 1 for each allied unit that has been defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed from the field. If this check succeeds, the unit may continue the fight undaunted. If the check fails, the unit’s Morale score is reduced by 1d4. If this reduces the unit’s Morale to -11, the unit's leader must make a DC 10 Morale check. If successful, the unit remains intact with its Morale reset to -10 and the unit routs, fleeing from the battlefield. If the check fails, the unit disbands. A cumulative -2 penalty applies to the Leadership check each time the unit's Morale reaches -11 or lower during the battle.
    • Routed Units: A routed unit is forced to flee the battlefield and cannot attack. Any unit engaged with it can make a free Standard or Volley attack against the routing unit. After this attack is resolved, the unit’s leader must make an opposed Leadership check with a -4 penalty against the leader of the engaged unit that made the attack, with each leader adding +1 for each 10 ft. of their unit's Speed to this roll (making it advantageous to use cavalry or other fast units to attack routing units). If the fleeing unit wins the check, it is able to disengage and escape from the battlefield. If the enemy unit’s check is higher, the routing unit disengages but is forced to remain on the battlefield in an adjacent zone.
    • General Retreat: At the end of any Rout phase, a commander can sound a general retreat, ordering all of her units to fall back and leave the battlefield. This functions like the Retreat tactic but can be performed even by units that have already attacked in the Melee phase; however, retreating units take an additional -2 penalty to their Morale check to disengage from enemy units. In addition, when a General Retreat is ordered, any enemy unit that is not engaged with one of your retreating units can make one Volley ranged attack against any retreating unit of its choice.
    • Mercenaries: When a mercenary army’s Morale drops to -10 or lowerg or when they have lost more than half of their sections, they must make a Morale check to avoid routing. A nation takes no penalties when a mercenary army disbands or is destroyed.

Tactics

Tactics are options an army can use to influence aspects of a battle. A newly recruited army doesn’t know any of these tactics unless specified by the GM. An army learns new tactics by being victorious in battle (see Victory, Rout, or Defeat). An army can know a number of tactics equal to half its ACR, minimum 0.
    When a battle begins, the commander selects one tactic to use for that battle (if the army doesn’t know any tactics, the army uses the standard tactic). At the start of each Ranged or Melee phase, the commander may try to change tactics by attempting a DC 15 Morale check. Success means the army uses the new tactic for that phase (and the modifiers from the old tactic cease); failure means the army continues to use its current tactic. The effects of tactics end when the battle does.
    As with battlefield conditions, gaining benefits from a tactic is subject to GM discretion. (For example, you may not get the expert flankers benefit if you cannot actually flank your enemy).
    All armies know the Full Defense, Furious Charge, Retreat, Standard, and Withdraw tactics (and an army with ranged weapons automatically has the Volley tactic); these tactics do not count against this maximum. Tactics marked with † are usable only once during a battle by each side as they represent either maneuvers based on limited resources or on battlefield deception. Some maneuvers require one or more kinds of specialized equipment for the unit performing it.

  • Cautious Combat Your army fights cautiously in order to maintain morale. Decrease its MV and RV by 2, and add 2 to all its Morale checks.
  • Cavalry Sweep Your unit is trained in making swift ride-by attacks against infantry, dashing across the battlefield and harrying the enemy. Your unit can attack two non-mounted armies in a single Melee phase. Your unit gains -4 MV and RV, and -2 DV for the remainder of the Melee phase and your attacks deal only half damage, but you are not considered engaged after attacking a non-mounted unit. Requirement: mounts.
  • Covering Fire Your unit keeps some of its soldiers back from the front lines in order to provide covering fire for you and allies and to strafe targets of opportunity trying to move around you. Once per Battle round, when your unit or an allied unit disengages from an enemy unit, including the Retreat or Withdraw Tactic, or a unit that routs or is destroyed, you can make a ranged attack against the enemy unit from which it is trying to disengage. If your attack hits, you inflict 1d4-1 Casualties and your allied unit gains a +1 bonus to DV and to opposed Morale checks made to disengage. Requirement: ranged weapons.
  • Defensive Wall Your army fights defensively, taking actions to protect fellow units as needed. Decrease its MV and RV by 2, and increase its DV by 2.
  • Dirty Fighters Your army uses trickery and unfair tactics to gain an advantage at the start of a battle. For one Melee phase this battle, its MV increases by 6. (After that Melee phase, the opposing army knows to be ready for such tricks.)
  • False Retreat† Once per battle, your unit can make a false retreat, luring a target enemy unit deeper into your territory. On the phase your unit makes a false retreat, it doesn’t attempt an Offense check, and make an opposed Leadership check with the enemy unit's leader. If your check is the higher of the two, both your unit and the target enemy unit move one zone closer to your Camp; if not, both units remain in place. Regardless of the outcome of the check, your unit gains a +6 bonus to MV, RV, and DV against the target unit.
  • Feint Your unit feigns an attack to draw enemies out of position and distract them from greater threats elsewhere on the battlefield. On a successful attack, you deal half damage but do not become engaged. In addition, your unit and the unit you attack must make opposed Morale checks with a bonus equal to the unit’s UCR. If you win this opposed check, the defending unit is drawn out of position and takes a -2 penalty to DV for the rest of the Battle round. If your attack fails, your attack does no damage and your unit becomes engaged with the defender.
  • Full Defense Your army focuses on total defense of the battlefield. Increase its DV by 4, and decrease its MV and RV by 4.
  • Furious Charge Your unit makes a furious rush to attack a defending unit. You gain +2 MV and -2 DV for the remainder of the Battle round. An engaged unit cannot use this tactic. If you successfully attack an enemy unit, it takes a -1 penalty to Morale checks made to try disengaging with you until the end of Battle round.
  • Overwhelming Onslaught Your unit makes a wild and reckless attack meant to overwhelm and overrun the defending unit. Your unit gains +4 MV and -4 DV, and after resolving your attack you take you take 1d6-3 Casualties if the attack succeeds, 1d6 if the attack fails (these Casualties are modified by your Strategy, as per Table 1). If your attack succeeds against a target using Full Defense, Pike Square, or Screening Defense tactics, the defending unit must succeed on a Morale check (DC 10 + Attacker’s UCR) or those tactics are negated for the remainder of the Battle round. If the Morale check fails by 5 or more, that unit cannot use any of those tactics again for the remainder of the battle. If you successfully attack an enemy unit, it takes a -2 penalty to Morale checks made to try disengaging with you until the end of Battle round.
  • Pike Square Your unit grounds its polearms and sets them to fend off enemies, especially mounted foes, while setting a shield wall to protect against infantry. Your unit gains -2 MV but gains +2 DV against mounted armies and deals +2 damage on a successful attack against a mounted unit. In addition, your unit deals +1 damage against any unit using the Aggressive Attack strategy, +2 against armies using All-Out Attack strategy. Requirement: reach weapons, no mounts.
  • Pincer Maneuver Your unit is trained to envelop an enemy unit engaged with yours. You gain +2 MV and RV against a unit that is already engaged by an allied army; however, because you are spread out you take a -2 penalty to your DV for the rest of the Melee phase against attacks from armies that are not already engaged with you. Your unit's size must be equal or larger than the enemy to use this tactic. When you use this tactic, a unit engaged with you takes a -2 penalty to Morale checks made to disengage, flee, retreat, or withdraw for the remainder of the Battle round.
  • Pursuit When an enemy unit retreats, routs, or withdraws from the battlefield, your unit can try to chase them down, even if they are in the Camp zone. Make an opposed Morale check against the target unit, with each unit adding +1 for every 10 ft. of their Speed to this check (you gain an additional +1 bonus if the target unit routed in the previous Melee phase). If your Morale check succeeds, you force the target unit back into the Ranged or Melee zone (your choice) and can make a Standard melee attack or Volley ranged attack against that unit. You cannot use this tactic if your unit is engaged.
  • Relentless Brutality Your army throws caution to the wind and attacks with savage and gory vigor. Increase its MV by 4, and decrease its DV by 4.
  • Retreat Your unit can exit the battlefield completely with this tactic. Your unit cannot attack during the Battle round in which it uses this maneuver and takes a -1 penalty to DV and Morale. The unit must attempt opposed Morale checks against all enemy armies engaged with it; each unit adds its Forced March speed to this special Morale check. If an enemy unit’s Morale check exceeds yours, it can make a free melee attack against you, even if it has already acted this round. Enemy armies that fail to beat your Morale check do not gain this free attack. If your army survives these attacks (even if your unit takes all of its Casualties, but not if it is destroyed), it disengages from all enemy armies and leaves the battlefield.
  • Screening Defense Your army may choose another army to protect on the battlefield. Melee attacks made against the army you are protecting affect your army instead. While using this tactic, your army cannot attack any army unless it first attacks you in melee. The unit you are protecting cannot be engaged by an enemy unit unless your unit is routed or destroyed. If the unit you are protecting is already engaged, it remains engaged; using this maneuver does not force the opposing unit to disengage. The unit you protect can be targeted with ranged attacks, though it gains a +2 bonus to DV against them. You take 1d6-3 points of damage if the unit you guard is hit with a ranged attack; and the unit you guard takes the same damage if your army is hit with a ranged attack.
  • Siegebreaker Your army targets another army’s siege engines in an attempt to destroy them. If your army damages the target army, your army attempts a second Offense check; if successful, destroy one of the target’s siege engines. This tactic has no effect on enemy armies without siege engines. In addition, a unit using this tactic can try to circumvent the protection of a unit using the Screening Defense tactic if the unit it protects is equipped with siege weapons. If your attack against the screening unit succeeds, your attack deals half damage to that unit and you can make a second attack against the protected unit and its siege weapons. This attack also deals half damage.
  • Skirmishers Your unit makes a quick probing strike and then disengages. Your unit takes a -2 MV penalty and deals half damage on a successful attack, but you do not become engaged with the target unit whether or not your attack succeeds. Requirement: no medium or heavy armor.
  • Sniper Support Your army holds some ranged units in reserve to attack a target enemy army during the Melee phase. If your army damages the target army in the Melee phase, it deals 2 additional points of damage from these ranged attacks. The army must have ranged attacks to use this tactic. Requirement: ranged weapons.
  • Spellbreaker Your army has specialists who can disrupt enemy spellcasting. Increase its DV by 4 against armies with the spellcasting ability.
  • Standard Your army’s attacks have no additional modifiers to its MV, RV, DV, or damage.
  • Strafing Skirmishers Your unit keeps on the move while riddling its targets with quick volleys. Your unit takes a -2 RV penalty and deals half damage on a successful attack during the ranged combat phase, but it gains a +1 DV and once per round when attacked during the melee phase your unit can attempt a Morale check to avoid becoming engaged. Requirement: ranged weapons, no medium or heavy armor.
  • Taunt† Your army is skilled at taunting its opponents, provoking stupid mistakes and overconfidence in battle. The target army must attempt a Morale check (DC = 10 + your army’s UCR) at the start of each Melee or Ranged phase; failure means it reduces its MV, RV, and DV against your army by 2 for that phase. If the target army succeeds at two of these Morale checks, it’s immune to this tactic for the remainder of the battle.
  • Volley Your unit remains stationary and makes a ranged attack against any enemy unit on the field. Requirement: ranged weapons.
  • Withdraw Your army tries to escape from all armies attacking it. The army attempts an opposed Morale check against each army attacking it to maintain discipline (any army may voluntarily fail this check), but doesn’t need to attempt the usual Morale check to change tactics when switching to withdraw. If all of these checks are successful, your army may withdraw from the battlefield or treat the phase as a Ranged phase. If only some are successful, you may withdraw or treat the phase as a Ranged phase, but enemy armies in the battle may attack you as if you were in Melee. Whether or not the checks are successful, reduce your army’s MV, RV, and DV by 2 for the rest of this phase.

Attacking And Taking Casualties

In mass combat, the hundreds of individual attacks that take place in one battle phase overlap each other enough that who actually attacks first is irrelevant.
    When making an attack, either ranged or in melee, the army unit makes an Offense check (1d20 + either their MV or RV depending on the type of attack) and compares the result to the target unit's DV.
    If the Offense check is less than or equal the target army's DV, the army deals no damage that phase.
    If the Offense check is greater than defender's DV, the defending army takes Casualties equal to the result of the attacker's Offense check minus the defender's DV. For example, if the attacker's Offense check is 11 and the defender's DV is 7, the defending army takes 4 points of damage.
    Upon receiving damage, the unit's leader must roll a leadership check with a penalty equal to the damage dealt. If the check beats DC 20, then the leader may choose which section receives the damage. For every 5 that the check beats the DC, the leader may choose to divide the damage between an additional section, up to the maximum number of sections the unit has. If the check fails, then the section with the least amount of hit points receives the damage first. Damage exceeding a section's remaining hp is applied to the next section with the lowest hit points. A section reduced to 0 hit points is destroyed.
    If the Offense check is a natural 20, but that check is lower than the enemy army's DV, the attacking army still deals 1 point of damage. If the Offense check is a natural 1, that army can't attempt an Offense Check in the next phase, due to some setback: a misheard order, getting stuck in mud, and so on.

Defeat, Destroyed, Disbanded

  • Defeated Units: A unit that has all of its sections reduced to 0 hit points is defeated and can take no further actions in the battle, but it can be taken prisoner or massacred by its enemies following the battle, attacked in spite of their surrender in the midst of battle, or recovered, reformed, and restored to fighting strength by its allies after the battle ends (see Victory and Aftermath). Unless destroyed or massacred, a defeated unit has enough surviving soldiers to later form one section, but these survivors are too wounded, physically exhausted, or emotionally shaken to continue to fight.
  • Destroyed Units: If a defeated unit is attacked before the battle ends, it takes a -2 penalty to its DV. If successfully attacked by an enemy unit of at least half its size, the defeated unit is instead destroyed and ceases to exist as a fighting force. Any survivors are individuals who are wounded, or surrendered or deserted. If the destroyed unit was led by its army's commander, the army's Morale is reduced by 2. The commander can then be dealt with as described in the Victory and Aftermath section.
    • An army is destroyed when all of its units are destroyed. When that happens, the nation for which it fought loses 1 point of Fame. In addition, there is a 25% chance that the city where the army was recruited (with an Improvement or Recruitment Edict) has a Building Demand event during the next nation turn, demanding a Monument to be erected as a memorial to the fallen. This is in addition to any other nation events that may occur. Unrest increases by 1 every month this demand is not met.
  • Disbanded Units: When unit's Morale reaches -11 or lower and its leader fails a Morale check, the unit not only routs from the battlefield but actually ceases to exist as a fighting force, disintegrating in a combination of flight and surrender. When a unit disbands, 50% of its number is permanently deducted from the nation’s population, as those soldiers desert their country and flee for safer lands where their shame will not follow them. The other 50% of the soldiers filter back into the population of their nation. If the disbanded unit was led by the army's commander, the army's Morale is reduced by 1, but the commander is able to return to the Command zone and can be reassigned to another unit in that zone during the next Tactics phase.
    • When a unit disbands, the army commander must succeed at a leadership check, or else the Army Morale reduces by 1, and all allied armies take a -1 penalty to Morale checks for the remainder of the battle; this stacks if more than one unit disbands. When an army disbands, the nation for which it fights takes a permanent -1 penalty to Fame, Loyalty, and Stability and the city where the army was recruited (with an Improvement or Recruitment Edict) takes a permanent -2 penalty to Law.
    • If an army disbands while you are at war (rather than, for example, disbanding because of lack of pay or training during peacetime), your enemy gains a one-time reduction in its consumption for any one unit within one hex of the disbanded unit equal to 1/2 the disbanded army’s ACR; if this amount exceeds your unit’s Consumption, any excess is lost. However, if you use an Improvement Edict or Recruitment Edict to create a new army in a Fort or settlement within 3 hexes of the site of the enemy army’s desertion, you gain a one-time bonus to your next Loyalty check to recruit that army as you take advantage of disaffected deserters from your enemy who have turned to your sside

Fatigue

An army unit that becomes fatigued takes a -1 penalty to MV, RV, and DV and cannot use the Furious Charge or Overwhelming Onslaught tactics. If a unit engages in an activity that causes it to become fatigued when it is already fatigued, it becomes exhausted instead. Its penalties to MV, RV, and DV increase to -3 and its movement speed is halved, and it cannot use the Cavalry Sweep, False Retreat, Pincer Maneuver, Pursuit, Skirmishers, or Strafing Skirmishers maneuvers. If a unit performs an action that would cause it to become fatigued when it is already exhausted, the unit takes 1 damage to each section.
    To remove fatigue, a unit must retreat or withdraw from the battlefield to the Camp zone, and remain there without engaging another unit or being attacked for at least 2 Melee phases; each Melee phase after the first that it spends resting, it may attempt a Morale check to recover from its fatigue. If a battle ceases for at least 8 consecutive hours, armies on all sides can attempt an army Morale check to recover from fatigue. If a unit is exhausted, making one Morale check to recover improves its condition to fatigued. The unit can attempt an additional Morale check for each Melee phase it continues to rest away from the battlefield (or each 8 hours when no battle occurs) to remove the fatigued condition.

Healing After Battle

A unit that remains on the field or is able to retreat from it without being defeated can rest for 2 hours in order to regain 1 hit point to each of its sections that were not destroyed and automatically reduces the exhausted condition to fatigued. Sections regain 1 hit point for each additional hour of rest. If the unit can rest for 8 additional hours without interruption, the unit automatically removes the fatigued condition. Units that are marching, guarding prisoners, or performing other light-duty tasks heal half the normal amount of hit points (rounding down). Units that engage in a battle or that take damage from a forced march do not heal at all.
    A unit that has been defeated but is able to reach the Camp zone or exit the battlefield regains 1 hit point after 2 hours of rest to only one section. After this time, it can again function as a unit, including using the healing rules described above. If the unit is destroyed or disbands, it cannot heal. The Magical Healing command boon or Healing Potions resource doubles the number of hit points regained by one unit during the first 2 hours of its rest.
    A section that is destroyed represents all soldiers in that section being killed in battle. A section that does not have full hp represents that a number of its soldiers are injured and unable to continue fighting, but can still be healed. The number of wounded soldiers per section is calculated by dividing the section's missing hp by the unit's total hp multiplied by the unit's total number of soldiers.

Parley

Once per battle, at the beginning of any Battle phase, the commander of either army may ask for parley, a meeting under a flag of truce with a spokesperson for the opposing side. You must use this maneuver before any army has attacked in the Battle phase. The commander asking for Parley must make a Diplomacy or Intimidate check opposed by the Diplomacy or Intimidate check of the opposing general. When using Diplomacy, the commander adds his nation’s Fame score to this check. When using Intimidate, the commander adds his nation’s Infamy score instead. Each commander chooses which skill to use and need not choose the same skill. A commander takes a -1 penalty for each unit under his command that has been defeated or routed, -2 for each that has been destroyed. If your check equals or exceeds the opposing general’s, you can force them (or their representative) to come forth and meet you under a temporary truce to discuss terms of surrender or withdrawal from the field, to offer a challenge of champions or other contest, to exchange hostages or negotiate ransom, or simply to taunt and bluster at one another. Armies normally do not attack during the Ranged or Melee phases when a Parley occurs, though they may use command boons or disengage from enemy armies, or perform other actions that are not attacks. If a unit does attack during a Parley, the kingdom whose army it is gains +1d4 Infamy, and each unit that attacks loses 1 point of Morale. In addition, your armies gain a +1 bonus to OM and on opposed Morale checks against any army that attacks during the Parley for the remainder of the battle.

Siege

An army of sufficient size can siege a settlement without engaging its defenders. The attacking army forms a military blockade of the settlement, preventing anyone from coming in or out. As long as the settlement is sieged, its nation no longer gains the benefit of the bonuses it provides, although its penalties continue to apply. See Table: Settlement Siege Army Size to see the minimum army size required to to completely blockade an enemy settlement. Smaller armies can attack and siege larger settlements, however the blockade is incomplete, and the settlement remains accessible to its nation, allowing it to continue providing its benefits. The following rules also apply to terrain improvements where armies can be garrisoned, such as Forts and Watchtowers.
    When an army attacks a settlement, the defenders' Front zone is the outer edge of the settlement, which includes City Walls and Moats. The Rear, Command, and Camp zones are all located within the area containing the rest of the settlement's buildings. The defender's zones are considered to have the fortifications and natural obstacles battlefield conditions.
    When a sieging unit is in the settlement's Rear, Command, or Camp zones, it can attempt to destroy a building. This is treated as attacking an enemy army, with a building having an effective DV equal to 15 plus the building’s Defense modifier (if any) and hit points equal to its BP value. The unit can attack once per Battle phase (if a battle is still going on nearby) or four times per day (if not). A building reduced to less than half its hit points (BP value) ceases providing any benefits to the nation that owns it. A building can be repaired on its owner’s next nation turn, spending BP equal to the damage the building has taken. If the building is reduced to 0 hit points (BP value), it is destroyed.

Settlement Supplies: When a settlement is under siege by an enemy army, its supplies become limited. A settlement has a supply of BP equal to its number of districts plus 2 per Granary, Stockyard, and Warehouse (Forts and Watchtowers are considered to have 0 districts). The BP supply for any army garrisoned at the settlement is kept separate. A settlement's supply BP reduces by 1 for each week that passes while the settlement is under siege. In addition, the consumption of any army garrisoned at the settlement must be paid weekly instead of monthly. Once the settlement's BP supply reaches 0, the Morale of any defending armies reduces by 1 for each week that passes in addition to any Morale penalties due to not paying consumption. Defending armies may also pillage their own settlement for BP to pay consumption.
    A sieged settlement can be resupplied by an allied army's BP supply. If the settlement is completely blockaded, the relief army mush enter battle with the sieging army. The BP is delivered to either the settlement or the defending army if at least one od the relief army's units reached the settlement's Rear zone. If the blockade is incomplete, the relief army can enter the settlement without battling the sieging army if its commander's check beats the enemy commander's check. If not, then the two army enter mass combat as previously described. If the relief army is defeated, the sieging army may claim the supplies for themselves.

Flying Units: A relief army with flying units can enter and deliver supplies to a settlement (except for aquatic and cavernous settlements) without battle by dropping them from the air, unless the sieging army also has have flying units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the flying units.
    To deliver the supplies safely, they must be dropped in the settlement's Camp zone. The flying unit needs to make a DC 20 ranged attack, and add the settlement's modifier to the check. Weather conditions also affect the drop's landing. Depending on the weather, add the Ranged modifier listed on Table: Weather to the range attack. It is impossible to safely deliver the supplies in hurricane or windstorm conditions. If the attack roll misses by 4 or less, then the supplies land in the settlement's Command zone. For every 5 that the attack roll misses, the supplies land in one zone further away from the settlement's Camp. If the supplies land outside the Camp zone, a defending unit in the same zone as the supplies must spend their Melee phase to pick up the supplies, and then spend their next actions moving back to the Camp zone. Until the supplies reach the Camp, it is vulnerable to attack by enemy units who can claim the supplies for their own army.

Burrowing Units: A relief army with burrowing units can enter and deliver supplies to a surface or cavernous settlement without battle by tunneling under the ground, unless the sieging army also has burrowing units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the burrowing units.
    If the sieging army has units with tremorsense, but none with burrow, then they are aware of the relief army's movements, but are unable to stop them.

Swimming Units: A relief army with swimming units can enter and deliver supplies to a barge, causeway, or underwater settlement without battle by swimming under water, unless the sieging army also has swimming units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the swimming units.

Table: Settlement Siege Army Size

Settlement Size Minimum Army Size
Thorp, Watchtower Platoon
Hamlet Reinforced Platoon
Village Company
Small Town, Fort Reinforced Company
Large Town Battalion
Small City Regiment
Large City Reinforced Regiment
Metropolis Brigade
(+1) (+Brigade)

Restocking: Once a settlement is no longer under siege by enemy armies, it replenishes its supplies at a rate of 1 BP per month. The nation's Councilor may use their leadership action to supply the settlement with additional BP during the nation's Decision phase. If the settlement is attacked before its supplies reach its limit, then its supplies decrease starting at its current amount.

Victory and Aftermath

Once all armies but those belonging to one side have been eliminated, whether defeated, destroyed, disbanded, routed, or retreated from the field, the remaining side is victorious.

Fighting the Enemy Comander: When the unit led by its army's commander has been destroyed, that commander can be captured or killed. You can resolve this encounter in several ways.

Combat: The leader(s) of your army can engage in direct character-to-character combat with the leader(s) of the enemy army. This plays out using the standard personal combat rules, but leaders from the victorious army gain a +2 morale bonus to attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and initiative for the duration of this combat. Your armies generally do not participate directly in this kind of confrontation, as they are assumed to be securing the area and taking junior commanders and soldiers into custody while the major PCs and NPCs fight. If an NPC leader ends a round of combat at less than half his or her hit points, there is a 50% chance per round that the leader surrenders.

Execution: If a commander or other significant leader is captured, the leaders of the triumphant army have the option to publicly execute that leader. If that leader is a player character, they should generally be allowed the chance to escape execution by playing out a normal combat encounter; however, if they have already been overcome and rendered helpless in normal combat, execution may be their fate. NPC leaders are killed automatically if the victorious leader calls for execution. Being killed in combat is not considered an execution, nor is a leader choosing to commit suicide; a leader must be slain as a helpless captive (usually by a coup de grace) for it to be treated as an execution.
    Executing an enemy leader earns +1 Infamy for the nation whose army performs the execution if the executed character is a nation leader (+2 if they are the ruler). If you execute all leaders you capture in a battle, rather than just one, you earn double the Infamy modifier for the highest-ranking leader you execute. Executing ordinary military commanders that are not nation leaders does not affect a kingdom’s Infamy.

Ransom: Leaders captured in battle (including those whose armies have been destroyed, even if their side later won the battle) may be held for ransom. A usual ransom demand is 1 BP times the captive leader’s character level for a nation leader. This ransom demand is halved for a leader that does not have a leadership role in the nation (i.e., an ordinary military commander) but is doubled if the captive leader is the nation’s ruler.
    These ransom demands typically include only the ransomed person and a noble or royal outfit of ordinary clothing, though the leader’s captors can of course return any additional items they choose. If double the normal ransom is paid, the ransomed character’s goods are returned along with them. At the GM’s option, individual items may also be ransomed separately; if the captors are unaware that an item is magical, the nature of their enchantment or its market value. For example, their ransom for the royal crown is not required to be equal to its sale price as a piece of jewelry.
    Offering to return leaders that you hold captive in exchange for a ransom is considered a mark of honor and gains your nation +1 Fame for a nation leader, +2 Fame for a ruler. You gain an additional +1 Fame if you offer to ransom all leaders you capture in a battle (assuming there is more than one). If you pay a ransom to recover your leaders, you lose an amount of Fame for your own country equal to what the captor’s nation gains; however, you gain an equivalent bonus to Loyalty, as your subjects appreciate the lengths to which the nation will go to reclaim its own.

Manpower Attrition: Having soldiers captured or killed in battle (or deserting from the field) has a significant impact on the health and vitality of a nation. Soldiers killed or captured in battle still count against a nation’s available Manpower for 1 year.
    Wounded soldiers from an army that has been defeated or destroyed count against a nation’s available Manpower for 1 month.
    When an army disbands, 50% of its soldiers desert the nation and count against its Manpower for 1 year. The other 50% survive and count against the nation’s Manpower for 1 month.
    In addition to the effect on army recruitment itself, losing large numbers of soldiers has a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the nation away from the front lines. For every 500 soldiers a nation loses in battle to death, capture, or desertion (i.e., anything that counts against the nation’s Manpower for 1 year), the nation takes a permanent penalty of -1d4 to Economy, Loyalty, and Stability.

Fame and Infamy: The nation of a victorious army gains a +1 to either Fame or Infamy when all enemy armies (or armies) are defeated, destroyed, disbanded, routed, or have retreated from the field. This bonus is increased by +1 if a Fort or settlement is captured and occupied, and the bonus is doubled if the victorious army is able to triumph while losing no more than 1 army (or unit). The nation of an army on the losing side in a battle loses 1 point of Fame (2 points if it allowed a Fort or settlement to be captured by enemy forces), and this loss of Fame is doubled if in defeat they failed to defeat, destroy, disband, or rout more than one enemy army (or unit).

Morale: Success and failure on the battlefield obviously have a significant impact on the Morale of the surviving armies involved. What transpires in between battles likewise helps an army, defeated or triumphant, prepare for its next foray onto the battlefield. Careful preparation and training with their leaders keeps them sharp and ready, while armies languish after too long a period of inactivity.

Table : Army Morale Modifiers

Modifier Condition
+1d4 Winning a battle (-1 per allied unit defeated or destroyed, to a minimum or 0).
+1 Trains with general or significant character for 1 week.
+1 Pay double consumption.
-1d4 If an army’s commander is captured and executed while the army still exists.
-1 Take friendly fire damage from an allied army.
-1 Per month without combat (per year for garrisoned unit).
-1 Survives battle, but battle lost (a fortification or city captured by enemy armies, or more armies lost than the enemy in a battle in the open field).
-2 Survives battle but routed from the battlefield.
-2 Consumption not paid, per week for active armies (per month for garrisoned armies).

Prisoners of War: As described in the Bloodied, Defeated, Destroyed, and Disbanded section, armies on the losing side in a battle are rarely if ever completely wiped out. In most cases, the wounded and surrendered far outnumber the dead. This raises the question, of course, of what to do with enemy soldiers now in your custody. Turning them loose to rejoin their fellows in the fight against you is hardly a viable option (though officers and leaders may be ransomed). Generally speaking, a victorious army has three options: forced labor, internment, or massacre.

Civilian Prisoners: Civilian populations can be rounded up and imprisoned, put to work, or slaughtered just as captured soldiers can. Abuse of civilians is generally frowned upon. Imprisoning civilians generates +1 Infamy per 1,000 civilians placed in internment, and Infamy modifiers for forced labor and massacre are doubled. However, civilians are generally less likely (or less able) to rebel against their captors, and each civilian counts as only 1/10 of a prisoner of war for the purpose of how many guards are required.
    If any portion of a civilian population of a hex or a settlement is made captive, any nation bonuses from buildings in that hex or settlement (except for Defense value) is halved; if 50% or more of the civilian population is eliminated, all nation benefits for those improvements or buildings are lost.

Forced Labor: Soldiers captured in battle can be put under guard and forced to work for the benefit of their new nation. For each 100 captives forced to work for a full month, you can reduce the cost of any terrain improvement by 1 BP, or you can compel them to labor on a Farm, Mine, Quarry, or Sawmill, increasing the BP output (or Consumption reduction) of that improvement by 1. Forced laborers do not increase your nation’s Consumption, as their unpaid labor and meager standard of living offset what little they consume. However, using prisoners for forced labor results in a -1 penalty to Stability per 100 forced laborers (or fraction thereof), and your nation gains +1 Infamy each month it uses prisoners for forced labor. Prisoners used for forced labor must be guarded at all times, as described under internment below.

Internment: Soldiers captured in battle can simply be locked away, kept as prisoners for the duration of the conflict. Prisoners must be kept under guard, either in temporary stockades or permanent prisons. Any army capable of fighting can guard a number of soldiers equal to 10 times their number. If there are more prisoners than this, the nation holding the captives must make a Stability check each week with a cumulative -1 penalty for each multiple of the number of guards beyond x10 (e.g., an army of 20 soldiers could safely guard up to 200 prisoners; if there were 250 prisoners, a weekly Stability check would be required with a -2 penalty, since there are 12.5 times as many prisoners as guards, which exceeds the limit by 2 multiples over x10). A failed Stability check results in an uprising among the prisoners, which is treated as a Vandals (if prisoners are kept inside a settlement) or Bandit Activity (if outside a settlement) nation event.
    Prisoners can instead be escorted to permanent internment at a Barracks, Fort, Garrison, or Jail; a Barracks or Jail can hold up to 100 prisoners each while a Fort or Garrison can hold up to 200. This number can be increased by crowding prisoners into narrow quarters, up to five times the normal amount, but each additional 100 (Barracks or Jail) or 200 (Fort or Garrison) prisoners or fraction thereof beyond a building’s normal capacity generates 1 point of Unrest. Stationing a reserve army (as described in Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Ultimate Campaign) at the same building reduces Unrest by 1.
    Interning captives increases your nation’s Consumption by 1 per 100 prisoners. You may choose to reduce this Consumption increase by half by starving your prisoners; however, doing so causes you to gain +1 Infamy each month.

Massacre: A victorious army may decide that they lack the resources or the desire to keep its captive enemies alive, choosing instead to wipe them out, killing them to the last. Massacre of enemy forces earns +1 Infamy per army or unit put to death (regardless of size), plus an additional +1 Infamy for every 1,000 soldiers (or fraction thereof). Your nation earns +2 Infamy for the massacre of any number of civilians, plus an additional +1 Infamy for every 1,000 civilians (or fraction thereof).

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