House Rules: Mass Combat

In addition to being based on the Mass Combat rules of Pathfinder Roleplaying Game: Ultimate Campaign, the following house rules are also based on the rules of Ultimate Battle and Ultimate War.

Armies


An army is actually composed of one or more units. When you create an army, you are actually creating the army units that will compose the army. Each unit can be made up of creatures or classes, and be of a size different from other units. In this way, an army can be more versatile in war. For example, your army can have a unit of 500 1st-level fighters, 200 1st-level archers, 100 2nd-level heavy knights, and 50 3rd-level wizards.

Leading an Army

Each army must have a designated leader, known as the army commander. A commander with a good Profession (soldier) skill and/or the Leadership feat can assist the army's performance on the battlefield. An army commander can be a PC or an NPC, but must spend at least 3 days per week (if the army is in the field) or per month (if the army is in reserve, see below), or the army suffers a -1 penalty to Morale. This penalty accumulates each week or month the leader fails to show up. If the army's morale drops to -11, it disbands as noted above. The commander can alleviate this penalty by simply showing up the required amount of time; each week or month he does so, the penalty is reduced by 1. The penalty can also be reduced by 1 each week or month by doubling the army's consumption. The army commander is also the leader of one of the army's units, known as the command unit.

Leadership Bonus: Army commanders and unit leaders must often make a leadership check which consists of rolling 1d20 and adding her Leadership Bonus (LB). A commander’s base LB is equal to +1 for every 5 points of her Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and adds either her Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma modifier (whichever is highest). If she has the Leadership feat, the bonus increases by 1 for every 10 points of her Leadership Score. In addition, a commander’s LB is increased by 1 for every 5 base attack bonus above +1. Enhancement bonuses to these modifiers do not increase the bonus.

Profession (soldier) skill is used for ground-based armies. Aerial commanders use Profession (aeronaut), naval commanders use Profession (sailor), and siege commanders use Knowledge (engineering).

Natural 20 and 1: Rolling a natural 20 or a natural 1 on a Leadership check is not an automatic success or failure respectively. A natural 20 gives a +10 bonus to the check's result, and a natural gives a -10 penalty to the check.

Army Statistics

Name: This is the name of the army. This could be a mercenary company's name, such as "Thokk's Bloodragers," a formal regiment number such as "7th Royal Cavalry," or an informal name such as "militia from Redstone."

Army Commander: This entry lists the army's commander and the commander's highest mental attribute modifier, Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and Leadership score. The commander must be able to communicate with the army (possibly using message spells and similar magical forms of communication) in order to give orders or provide a bonus on the army's rolls. An army's commander can be changed at any time as long as the army and the new commander are in the same hex. The army may chafe or may not trust in the change of command, so the new commander will need to succeed at a DC 20 Morale check or else the army's Morale is reduced by 1.

Alignment: An army's alignment has no effect on its statistics, and is just a convenient way to summarize its attitude with two letters. It is usually the same alignment as a typical unit in that army.

Army Challenge Rating (ACR): An army's challenge rating is sum total of all of its units' UCR.

Army Tactics: These are any army tactics that all units have at their disposal in addition to those they already have.

Army Morale: This number represents how confident the overall army is. Army morale is a modifier from -10 (worst) to +10 (best). This modifier is applied to its unit's morale checks. A new army's Morale starts at 0 plus its commander's Charisma modifier. Morale can be later be modified by other factors. If an army's Morale is ever reduced to -11 or lower, all of the army's units disband or desert, and you no longer control it.

Consumption: This is how many Build Points (BP) an army consumes each week if the army is in the field, or per month if the army is garrisoned. Consumption represent the cost to feed, hydrate, arm, train, care for, and pay the units. An army’s Consumption is equal to the sum of all of its units' Consumption. The army's Morale reduces by 1 every week/month Consumption is not paid; this loss is replenished when you pay all of the missed Consumption. If the army is composed of followers of a PC with the Leadership feat, and that PC or their cohort is the army's commander, they can make a DC 10 Leadership every week (or month) to avoid the Morale loss, with a -1 incremental penalty every week/month after the first check. If you disband an active army within a within a week of its creation or its last payment, you must still pay for its Consumption one last time. If the army was instead garrisoned, you must pay its Consumption if you disband it within a month of its creation or last payment.

Supplies: An army's Supplies is used to pay its Consumption and used to pay for other expenses such as army engineering projects. Supplies take the form of an amount of BP carried by the army, and represents the army's pay, food, materials, and equipment replacements.

Camouflage: An army's Camouflage score is equal to the worse Camouflage score of its units.

Speed: An army's movement speed is equal to that of its slowest unit.

Commander Boons: This lists the boons the commander knows (see Boons). A new or unexceptional commander might know no boons at first, but can gain them from victories in battle. If you are a nation leader acting as a commander, you automatically have one boon appropriate to your leadership role that does not count towards your boons limit. Army units gain the benefit of the commander's boons in addition to those of their unit leader, though they do not stack if the commander and leader have the same boons.

Units: The different groups of creatures that make up the army. See Unit Statistics below. An army can have a number of units equal to 1 + the army commander's LB. In addition, all army units gain half of the commander's LB to OM, and DV.

Unit Statistics

Unit Leader: This entry lists the unit's leader and the leader's highest mental attribute modifier, Profession (soldier) skill modifier, and Leadership score. The unit gains its leader's LB to OM, and DV. A unit led by the army commander still adds one-half of the commander's LB in addition to the unit leader's LB to OM and DV. A unit's leader can be changed at any time as long as the unit and the new leader are in the same hex. The unit may chafe or may not trust in the change of command, so the new leader will need to succeed at a DC 15 Morale check or else the unit's Morale is reduced by 1.

Unit Challenge Rating (UCR): This is based on the CR of an individual soldier from the unit and the unit's size, and scales like CRs for monsters. To determine UCR, see Table: Army Sizes and apply the modifier for the army's size to the CR of an individual unit in the army.

XP: This is the total accumulated XP earned by the unit. XP is gained by participating in battles, and is determined by the opposing army's UCR of each of its units. The amount of XP earned after a battle is determined by adding together the XP value of each opposing army's units, using the unit's UCR as an encounter's CR. A victorious army earns the full XP value of the opposing army, while the defeated army earns half of their opposing army's XP value as long as the defeated army is not destroyed or disbanded. The total XP earned is divided equally among all of the army's units. When a unit earns enough XP, all troops in that unit gain a level. The amount of XP required to level is determined by the same advancement for PCs, using the unit's UCR in place of the PC's level. A unit's starting XP equals the amount needed to reach its UCR. A unit loses all accumulated XP when it is disbanded.

Consumption: A unit's base weekly (or monthly if garrisoned) Consumption is equal to half of its UCR (minimum 1). A unit's resources may also increase the unit's Consumption (see Equipping Your Armies section for details). If you disband an active unit within a within a week of its creation or its last payment, you must still pay for its Consumption one last time. If the unit was instead garrisoned, you must pay its Consumption if you disband it within a month of its creation or last payment.

Sections: Sections determine how much hp a unit has. An army unit is composed of up to 5 sections of equal size, and each section has hit points equal to the unit's UCR (minimum 1). However, not all leaders are are capable of handling the leadership demands of a full unit; hence, the maximum number of sections in a unit is limited to 1 + the leader’s LB. A unit that is lacking one or more sections at the beginning of a battle takes a -1 penalty to OM, DV, and Morale checks per missing section. A section is destroyed when it receives Casualties equal to its hp. A unit is destroyed if all of its sections are destroyed as well. Each time a section is destroyed, the unit loses 1 point of Morale.

For example, a Small-size army unit is composed of 1st-level human fighters (CR 1), and therefore has a UCR of 5. The unit's leader has a Charisma score of 14 (+2), a Profession (soldier) skill modifier of +10 (+2), and a Leadership score of 13 (+1). The unit's leader is thus fully capable of commanding a full unit of 5 sections, each with 5 hp for a unit total of 25 hp. However, if the leader had only a Charisma score of 10 (+0), a Profession (soldier) skill modifier of +11 (+2), and no Leadership score, she would only be able to command a weakened unit of of 3 sections, which would only have a unit total of 15 hp, and have a -2 penalty to OM, DV, and Morale checks (because of 2 missing sections).

Melee Value (MV): A unit’s combat prowess in melee is reflected in its MV. Units have a base MV equal to their UCR plus the LB of its leader and half of the army commander's LB; the army commander's unit does not gain this additional bonus from the army commander. MV can also be modified by equipment, special abilities, command boons, tactics, fatigue, environmental conditions, and the like.

Ranged Value (RV): A unit’s combat prowess in ranged combat is reflected in its RV. RV functions identically to MV, except that units are required to have the ranged weapons resource or other ranged attack capabilities. If it does not, then the unit those not have an RV value (denoted as "RV —").

Offense Modifier (OM): For simplicity's sake, both the MV and RV can be referred together as the OM, and its modifier applies to both attributes (if applicable in the case of RV).

Offense Check: Making an offense check can refer to either making a range attack or a melee attack.

Defense Value (DV): The defensive abilities of a unit are reflected in its DV. Units have a base DV equal to 10 + their UCR plus their leader’s LB plus half of their army commander's LB; the army commander's unit does not gain this additional bonus from the army commander.

Unit Morale: A unit’s Morale reflects its fighting spirit and its skill and confidence on the battlefield. Morale checks are often required to succeed at various battlefield tactics, or to overcome special effects caused by enemy armies. A brand-new unit has a Morale score equal to the nation’s Loyalty modifier divided by 20 (rounding down, with a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 10), and it can increase or decrease during the course of a battle and in its aftermath, increasing with victory and falling with defeat. A unit’s Morale score can never exceed 10, and if it ever drops to -11 or lower, the unit disbands.

Speed: A unit's Movement is equal to the movement speed of its creatures.

Unit Tactics: These are any army tactics the unit has at its disposal.

Scouting: See Scouting and Camouflage below.

Camouflage: See Scouting and Camouflage below.

Unit Boons: Unit leaders have boons just like army commanders, except they only affect their unit.

Table: Army Unit Sizes

Designation Number of Soldiers Size Modifier Resource Scaling Camouflage Unit Size
Solo* 1 +0 n/a +8 Fine
Squad 10 +1 x 1/10 +6 Diminutive
Platoon 25 +2 x 1/4 +4 Tiny
Reinforced Platoon 50 +3 x 1/2 +2 Small
Company 100 +4 x 1 +0 Medium
Reinforced Company 200 +5 x 2 -2 Large
Battalion 500 +6 x 5 -5 Huge
Reinforced Battalion 1,000 +7 x 10 -10 Gargantuan
Regiment 2,000 +8 x 20 -20 Colossal
Reinforced Regiment 4,000 +9 x 40 -40 Colossal+1
Brigade 8,000 +10 x 80 -80 Colossal+2
Reinforced Brigade 16,000 +11 x 160 -160 Colossal+3
Division 32,000 +12 x 320 -320 Colossal+4
Corps 64,000 +13 x 640 -640 Colossal+5
Army (x2) (+1) (x2) (x2) (+1)

Solo Units

The lone soldier of a solo unit is its own unit leader. He does not stack his UCR and LB together to calculate OM and DV. Instead, he chooses to use either his UCR or his LB. Solo units also do not have sections; instead, their hp is five times their UCR, and they do not make a Leadership check during the Casualties phase to divide the damage. A PC playing as a solo unit does not need to make a Morale check to determine if she routs during the Rout phase, but does need to make the Morale check to determine if she becomes fatigued.

Morale

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Morale is a score that measures your soldiers' willingness to fight, ranging from -10 to +10. Both the army and the unit that belongs to it have separate Morale scores (army Morale and unit Morale). Army Morale affects unit Morale, but not vice versa. If army Morale ever reaches -11, the commander must make a DC 10 Morale check. If successful, the army stays together and its Morale resets to -10; the army disbands if the check fails. The DC increases by 2 every time army's Morale reaches -11; the DC resets when Morale reaches 0 or higher. Unit Morale behaves the same way, except it is the unit leader that needs to make the check, and only the unit is affected, although units disbanding does have an impact on army Morale.

An army with only one unit does not have an army Morale score, only a unit Morale score. It uses its unit Morale score in place of army Morale for any army-related changes to Morale or Morale checks.

Morale Check: A Morale check is a 1d20 roll and adding the relevant Morale score. If the check is for the army as a whole, only add the army's Morale score and the commander's LB. If it the check is for a unit, add the unit leader's LB, half of the army commander's LB, and the army's Morale score to the check; the army commander's unit does not gain the bonus from the army commander. For each section missing from the unit’s full strength, whether already missing before battle or defeated during a battle, the unit takes a -1 penalty to its Morale checks. A natural 20 on a Morale check is an automatic success, and a natural 1 is an automatic failure.

Success and failure on the battlefield obviously have a significant impact on the Morale of the surviving armies involved. What transpires in between battles likewise helps an army, defeated or triumphant, prepare for its next foray onto the battlefield. Careful preparation and training with their leaders keeps them sharp and ready, while armies languish after too long a period of inactivity.

Table : Army Morale Modifiers

Modifier Condition
+1d4 Winning a battle (-1 per its own or allied unit defeated, destroyed or disbanded, to a minimum or 0).
+1 Trains with general or significant character for 1 week.
+1 Pay double consumption.
-1d4 If an army’s commander is captured and executed while the army still exists.
-1 Any of its units take friendly fire damage from an allied army or its own units.
-1 Per month without combat (per year for garrisoned unit).
-1 Survives battle, but lost the battle (a fortification or city captured by enemy armies, or more armies lost than the enemy in a battle in the open field).
-2 Survives battle but routed from the battlefield.
-2 Consumption not paid, per week for active armies (per month for garrisoned armies).

Mass Combat


Mass Combat Sequence

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Each round of a battle lasts 1 hour, and is split into several phases.

  1. Tactical Phase—At the start of each round of battle, the army commander can shift the overall strategy that all forces under her command will follow (see Strategy below). In addition, each unit leader can decide what special tactics their unit will use to implement that strategy (see Tactics below). These choices must be made before tactical initiative is determined.
    • Tactical Initiative: Each commander rolls a Leadership check, and whichever commander rolls lowest on their check must reveal their strategy first. A commander with a higher check can change his strategy in response to his opponent’s, though moving strategy more than one step on Table: Strategy requires a Morale check to perform smoothly.
      • In addition to forcing his enemy to reveal his strategy first, if one commander’s check exceeds his opponent’s by 5 or more, he can either force his enemy to reveal one tactic or he can change one of his own unit’s tactics for every 5 points by which his check exceeds his opponent’s. The commander can choose which unit he wishes to learn about; if that unit has more than one tactic available, it must reveal the tactic it is using during this Action phase. Regardless of the result of your check, you can reveal only one tactic per enemy unit or change one tactic for each of your units; any excess is lost. Command boons and creature special abilities are not revealed by winning tactical initiative.
    • The commander in charge of each army rolls for the tactical initiative; the individual unit leaders do not. The commander that wins tactical initiative selects one unit to act during the Action phase, followed by the enemy selecting one unit to act. Actions alternate from each commander until all units have acted. If one side has more units than the other, when one side runs out of units to attack taking turns with its opponent, any leftover units from the larger army act in succession until all have acted.
  2. Action Phase—During this phase, each army commander chooses one unit to act in turn in the order determined by the Tactical Initiative. Army units have 2 acts to spend for battle actions. See Actions for a list of actions a unit can execute. Keep track of how many Casualties each unit receives, but do not deduct them from the unit's section just yet.
  3. Casualties Phase—After resolving Action phase for the round, each unit deducts their Casualties from their sections. The unit leader makes a Leadership check with the DC equal to 10 + the total number of casualties received; a successful check allows the leader to divide the damage between two sections, plus one additional section for every 5 above the DC (up to a total of 5 sections). You must apply the damage to the section with the lowest hp, then the second-lowest, and so on. Healing is applied during this phase, with sections being healed in order of highest to lowest. Healing spills over from section to section. Sections that remain at 0 hp by the end of this phase are considered to be killed, and cannot be healed. Units with all of their sections reduced to 0 are defeated (see Defeated, Destroyed, Disbanded below).
  4. Rout Phase—Each undefeated unit makes a Morale check to determine if it becomes fatigued and if it still has the will to fight; defeated units are automatically fatigue and routing. The Fatigue DC starts at 10, and increases by 5 for every hour the unit has been on the battlefield (see Fatigue below). The Rout DC starts at 10 plus 5 for each allied unit that has been defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed from the field. If this check succeeds, the unit continues to fight. If the check fails, the unit’s Morale score is reduced by 1d4. If this reduces the unit’s Morale to -11, the unit's leader must make a DC 10 Morale check. If successful, the unit remains intact with its Morale reset to -10 and the unit routs, fleeing from the battlefield. If that check fails, the unit disbands. A cumulative -2 penalty applies to the Leadership check each time the unit's Morale reaches -11 or lower during the battle.
    • Routed Units: A routed unit is forced to flee the battlefield and cannot attack. The routed unit can no longer use the Melee or Ranged Attack actions, and must do whatever it can to use the Retreat action. When using the Disengage or Retreat action, and the routed unit fails its Morale check for those actions, the free attack from the enemy unit gains a +1 bonus for every 10 feet of movement speed that the attacking unit has over the routing unit, and -1 penalty for every 10 feet below (making it advantageous to use cavalry or other fast units to attack routing units).
    • Mercenaries: When a mercenary army’s Morale drops to -10 or lower or when they have lost more than half of their sections, they must make a Morale check to avoid routing. A nation takes no penalties when a mercenary army disbands or is destroyed.

Strategy

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At the beginning of a battle, each army commander must decide upon its overall strategy for the battle, not in terms of the precise maneuvers that will be used but more in terms of its philosophy about how the battle is to be conducted. Selecting a strategy applies to all units in the commander’s army. While individual units may have their own specialized tactics that define how they carry out the overall strategy, that one overall strategy guides all of their actions on the battlefield.

During each Tactical Initiative phase, the commander for each army can try to alter the strategy her forces pursue, adjusting it by one step in either direction without needing to make a Morale check. A commander can attempt to shift strategy to a greater degree, but this is difficult for all but the most highly trained armies, requiring a Morale check with a penalty equal to the number of steps by which strategy is being shifted. The check is made against the highest opposing commander's Tactical Initiative result. If the check fails, the army’s strategy changes one step in the desired direction, but the army is thrown into disarray for the remainder of that round, resulting in a penalty to OM and DV to all of that army's units equal to the number of steps the commander attempted to shift their strategy.

These modifiers are not multiplied by a unit's size modifier.

Table: Strategies

Type of Strategy MV and RV DV Casualties1
General Retreat2 -8 +8 -4
Hold Firm -4 +4 -2
Cautious Advance -2 +2 -1
Standard
Aggressive Attack +2 -2 +1
All-Out Assault +4 -4 +2

1The Casualties modifier applies to damage dealt by you and damage received from your enemies, including damage from failed attacks and friendly fire.
2In addition to the above modifiers, the General Retreat strategy grants a +2 bonus to Morale checks to Disengage and Retreat actions.

Boons

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Boons are special abilities a commander grants to an army. Most of these boons affect the rolls and statistics for battles, and the commander must be present at the battle to provide their benefit. A unit gains the benefit of two boons at the same time, one from its army commander and one from its leader. A commander selects one of her boons to apply to all units in her army. A unit leader selects of her boons to apply only to her unit. Unless otherwise stated, bonuses and penalties to OM or DV provided by boons are multiplied by the unit's size modifier (minimum +1 bonus and -1 penalty); modifiers to Morale and other attributes are not multiplied.

A character can know 1 boon plus 1 for every 5 ranks in Profession (soldier). A new or unexceptional commander or leader might know no boons at first, but can gain them from victories in battle. If you are a nation leader acting as a commander, you automatically have one boon appropriate to your leadership role (see below). If a leader is killed or incapacitated, any boons she provides are lost for the remainder of the battle, except for permanent boons.

Permanent Boons: Some command boons are not dependent on a specific action taken by a commander during battle, but instead reflect specialized training of the unit with their leader and with other soldiers with a similar range of skills. These permanent boons must be applied when a unit is created, and the leader cannot later shift the permanent boon to a different unit, though she can retire from command of the unit. The leader forfeits the ability to grant a boon (or one boon, if able to grant more than one) for 2d4 months after retiring. If the leader leaves a unit with a permanent boon, whether through death, retirement, or some other incapacity, and is not replaced by another significant leader that also qualifies to grant the same command boon, the unit loses 1d4 points of Morale and the permanent boon is lost within 1d4 months.

The following boons can be selected by commanders and leaders, but no boon can be applied to a unit more than once unless otherwise noted. A boon marked with P is a permanent boon that applies to only a single unit and cannot be shifted to other units.

  • Advanced Tactics: A unit with this boon gains a +1 bonus to its OM; however, this bonus is halved if the target unit also has Advanced Tactics or Defensive Tactics. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have at least 11 ranks in 5 different skills, one of which must be Profession (soldier).
  • Bloodied but Unbroken: The leader inspires the unit to be at its greatest in the most desperate times. A unit gains a +1 bonus to OM for each missing section. Requirement: The leader must have a Leadership score 4 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership score 10 or higher, this bonus increases to +2.
  • Battlefield Illumination: Once per battle, a unit with this ability can increase the light level on the battlefield by one category for all armies on the field (see Visibility). Alternatively, that unit can increase lighting levels by two categories, though the modifiers for this enhanced light level apply only to that unit and any unit engaged with it, and to ranged attacks made against that unit and any unit engaged with it. An enemy unit using Magical Advantage can forgo attacking in order to eliminate this increased light by making an opposed Morale check against the unit that created the illumination. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting daylight, or the unit is a fireworks siege unit.
  • Bonus Tactic: Choose one tactic. The leader always knows this tactic, and the leader’s unit can use this tactic even if it doesn’t know that tactic on its own. You can select this boon multiple times; each time you select it, choose a new tactic.
  • Consecrate Battlefield: A unit with this ability is immune to the create spawn army special ability and gains a +1 bonus on DV against armies comprised of undead or evil outsiders. In addition, once per battle this unit can negate the effect of the create spawn unit special ability against any allied other unit. A unit gains no benefit from this ability during any Action phase in which it uses the Aggressive Attack or All-Out Attack strategy. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting consecrate.
  • Cornucopia: A unit with this boon has a magical means of supplying itself with food and drink and banishing fatigue, reducing its dependence on a heavy supply train and giving it great strength at resisting sieges. The unit does not become fatigued after using a forced march, and reduces its Consumption by half (minimum 1). Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting create food and water and lesser restoration.
  • Combined Tactics: A unit with this boon deploys screening infantry to defend its ranged attackers. The unit cannot perform a melee attack in the Action phase, but gains a +1 bonus to its DV until the beginning of the next Action phase and can make ranged attacks even if engaged. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the army must have ranged weapons and a Dexterity of 13 or higher.
  • Daring Maneuvers: A unit with this boon can overextend itself to press home an advantage, though this leaves its flanks exposed. The unit gains a +2 MV bonus but takes a -1 penalty to DV until the start of the next Action phase.
  • Death Before Dishonor: A unit with this boon reduces Morale penalties or reductions, regardless of their source. All Morale penalties or reductions are reduced by 1 (minimum 0). This reduction is not modified by the unit's size. Requirement: The leader and the soldiers in the army must all have the aura of courage, bravery, rage, or resolve class feature or the Iron Will feat.
  • Defensive Tactics: The leader is especially good at defensive tactics. Increase the unit’s DV by 1. Requirement: The leader must have a Leadership score of 5 or higher to select this boon.
  • Desecrate Battlefield: An undead unit with this ability adds +1 to its OM, and DV, and its UCR is treated as 2 higher for the purpose of determining its hit points. If attacked by a unit using Magical Healing that is using that tactic as Magical Barrage, the attacking unit gains only one-half the normal bonus to its OM (minimum 0). Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting desecrate.
  • Divine Favor: A unit with this boon can add a +1 bonus to any die roll once per Action phase. It may apply this bonus after the result of the roll is known. Alternatively, once per battle it may choose to reroll any one die roll it makes; if it uses this ability, it forfeits the benefits of this boon for the remainder of the battle and for 1d4 days thereafter. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting 4th-level divine spells.
  • Engineering Experts: The unit is able to perform army engineering projects (see Army Engineering. Requirement: The leader must have 5 or more ranks in Knowledge (engineering) or Profession (engineer).
  • Expert Flankers: Your unit is skilled at surrounding the foe and distracting them, at the cost of spreading out too much and being more vulnerable. When engaging with an enemy unit smaller than yours, you can choose to consider your unit as flanking the enemy. In addition to the normal flanking benefits, increase your unit's MV by 1, and decrease its DV by 1.
  • Falling Dusk: Once per day, a unit with this ability can decrease the light level on the battlefield by one category for all armies on the field (see Visibility). Alternatively, that unit can decrease lighting levels by two categories, though the modifiers for this decreased light level apply only to that unit and any unit engaged with it, and to ranged attacks made against that unit and any unit engaged with it. An enemy unit using Magical Advantage can forgo attacking in order to eliminate this decreased light by making an opposed Morale check against the unit that created the darkness. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting deeper darkness.
  • Flexible Tactics: The leader trains the unit to be receptive to multiple orders during a battle. The unit gains a +5 bonus on Morale checks to change tactics during a battle. This bonus is not multiplied by the unit's size modifier. If the leader has the Leadership feat, this bonus increases to +10. Requirement: The leader must have 5 ranks in Profession (soldier).
  • Hit and RunP: The leader drills the unit in quick attacks followed by a fast retreat. After making a Melee attack, the unit can immediate attempt the Disengage action without spending an act with a +1 bonus to their Morale check. Requirement: The leader granting this boon and soldiers must have the Flyby Attack, Improved Overrun, Ride-by Attack, or Spring Attack feat or the trample, vortex, or whirlwind special attack. The leader must have a Leadership score 5 or higher to select this boon. At Leadership score of 10 or higher, the bonus increases to +2.
  • Hold the Line: The leader is skilled at convincing the unit to maintain morale against dangerous opponents. If the unit fails a Morale check to avoid a rout, it may reroll that check. It must accept the results of the second check, even if it is worse. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have the aura of courage, mettle, inspire courage, or resolve class feature or the ability to cast remove fear.
  • Implacable Advance: At the start of each Action phase, the leader with this boon grants his unit a +1 bonus to MV, and Morale until the end of the current Action phase. Any unit it attacks takes a -1 penalty to Morale until the beginning of the next Action phase. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have a base attack bonus of +11 or greater.
  • Last StandP: A unit with this boon can stave off elimination when on the brink of destruction. If the unit is reduced to 0 hit points or below, it is not defeated or destroyed if it receives a Magical Healing boon or uses Healing Potions before the end of the current Action phase sufficient to restore it to at least 1 hit point. Even if it does not receive this healing, it remains engaged with any enemy armies until the end of the next Action phase, and it can make an attack in that phase against a unit engaged with it, though it cannot advance, retreat, disengage, or attack armies not engaged with it. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the army must have the rage or resolve class feature, ferocity or orc ferocity special quality, or Endurance feat.
  • Live off the Land: The leader makes the unit trap game, hunt, and fish to augment its food supplies. See Living Off the Land.
  • Loyalty: The leader inspires great loyalty in the army. The unit gains a +2 bonus on all Morale checks. If the leader has the Leadership feat, this bonus increases to +4. In addition, as long as the leader and her unit are active on the field, all allied units gain a +1 bonus to Morale checks made to avoid routing or disbanding during the Rout phase. These bonuses are not multiplied by the unit's size modifier. Requirement: The character providing this boon must have a Charisma score of 15 or higher.
  • Merciless: The leader encourages the unit to be ruthless in its tactics and spare no wounded enemies. The unit gains a +1 bonus on opposed Morale checks to prevent another unit from disengaging or retreating. In addition, if you reduce an enemy unit to 0 hit points, it is automatically destroyed rather than merely defeated. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have at least 6 ranks in Intimidate, the Combat Reflexes feat, or an evil alignment.
  • Quick Repairs: A unit inside a fortification can conduct emergency repairs while a battle still rages, repairing 1d4 points of damage to a fortification at the end of each Rout phase (assuming the unit has not been routed itself). Multiply the number of d4s with the unit's size modifier. A unit on board one or more ships, or a naval squadron with this command boon, can likewise use this ability to repair ships that have not been sunk. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be able to cast at least one conjuration (creation) spell.
  • Ready for Battle: A unit with this boon gains a +4 bonus to leadership checks made to determine tactical initiative during the Tactical Phase. This bonus is not multiplied by the unit's size modifier.
  • Screaming for Vengeance The first time during a battle that any unit is defeated, destroyed, or routed (but not if it is disbanded), all allied units gain a +1 bonus to OM and Morale checks for the remainder of that Action phase (doubled to +2 if attacking or engaged with the unit that defeated, destroyed, or routed their allied unit). Each allied unit benefiting from this bonus uses their own size modifier to multiply the bonus.
  • SharpshooterP: The leader drills the unit in precision ranged attacks. The unit gains a +1 bonus on Offense checks against units using fortifications. This boon has no effect if the unit can’t make ranged attacks. In addition, the unit never deals friendly fire damage to allied units. Requirement: The character granting this boon and the creatures comprising the units must have the Precise Shot feat.
  • Skywardens: A unit with this command boon gains +1 RV, +1 DV, and +1 to all Scouting checks (see Camouflage and Scouting) made against aerial armies. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have Skill Focus (Perception) or at least 6 ranks in Perception.
  • Swift RidersP: A unit with this boon gains a +1 bonus to Morale checks to disengage (doubled to +2 against enemy units that are not mounted). Requirement: The unit must have mounts, and cannot use medium or heavy armor. Significant character and soldiers must have Mounted Combat or Skill Focus (Ride) feat.
  • Smoke Screen: Once per battle, a unit with this boon can cover the entire battlefield with light smoke (see Visibility) that lasts until the end of the current Action phase. Alternatively, that unit can cover itself with heavy smoke, though the modifiers for this heavy smoke apply only to that unit and any unit engaged with it, and to ranged attacks made against that unit and any unit engaged with it. Requirement: The character granting this boon must be capable of casting fog cloud, obscuring mist, pyrotechnics, or a similar effect, or the unit is a fireworks siege unit.
  • Surgical Strike: A unit with this boon gains +1 MV but takes a -1 penalty on damage. In addition, if this unit’s MV exceeds the DV of the target unit by 5 or more, the attacking unit may choose how to allocate the damage it deals among the defending unit’s sections. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have at least three teamwork feats.
  • Triage: Whether using magic, alchemy, herbalism, or folk knowledge, the leader drills the unit in using emergency methods to treat wounds. Once per battle, the unit may take a -4 penalty on its Offense check during the Action phase and heal damage equal to half its UCR. This penalty is not multiplied by the unit's size modifier. If the unit has the healing potions resource, it also gains the healing from this boon (without the Offense check penalty) when it uses healing potions.
  • War Chant: A unit with this boon unleashes a constant stream of whoops, yells, pounding drums, bashing shields, and rhythmic battle music that heartens them in the face of danger and intimidates their opponents. The unit gains a +1 bonus on its own Morale checks during battle, and any unit engaged with this unit takes a -1 penalty on Morale checks for as long as it remains engaged and for 1 Action phase after it disengages. In addition, during any Action phase in which the unit damages another unit in melee, the target unit takes a -1 penalty to its OM during the next Action phase against the unit with this boon. Requirement: The character granting this boon must have the bardic performance class ability or at least 11 ranks of Intimidate.
  • Wolves in the FoldP: A unit with this boon uses disguise and deception to infiltrate enemy lines and throw them into chaos. On the first Action phase of a battle, this unit gains a +1 bonus to its MV, and on a successful attack the target army takes a -1 penalty to its own OM, DV, and Morale until the beginning of the next Action Phase. Requirement: The character granting the boon and the soldiers must have the sneak attack special attack, shapechanger subtype, change shape or disguise self ability, or a Disguise or Stealth bonus of +10 or greater.

Nation Leader Commanders

If you have a nation leadership role (Ruler, High Priest, Grand Diplomat, and so on), you may take the role of an army commander. Your leadership role determines what boons you automatically know (even if you don’t meet the Leadership requirements for those boons). If a role lists multiple boons, you must choose one when you become a commander, (others may be gained in the normal manner). This is a bonus boon that does not count towards your normal boons limit.

Ruler: Bloodied but Unbroken, Loyalty
Consort: Loyalty
Councilor: Loyalty
Enforcer: Bonus Tactic, Merciless, Sharpshooter
General: Bonus Tactic, Flexible Tactics, Merciless, Sharpshooter
Grand Diplomat: Defensive Tactics, Merciless
Heir: Loyalty
High Priest: Hold the Line, Live off the Land, Triage
Magister: Flexible Tactics, Loyalty
Marshal: Live off the Land, Hit and Run, Sharpshooter, Triage
Spymaster: Hit and Run, Merciless, Sharpshooter
Treasurer: Loyalty
Viceroy: Loyalty
Warden: Defensive Tactics, Hold the Line, Loyalty

Tactics

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Tactics are options an army can use to influence aspects of a battle. A newly recruited unit doesn’t know any of these tactics unless specified by the GM. A unit learns new tactics by being victorious in battle. A unit can know a number of tactics equal to half its UCR, minimum 0. Bonus tactics do not count towards this limit. Unless otherwise stated, bonuses and penalties to OM or DV provided by tactics are multiplied by the unit's size modifier (minimum +1 bonus and -1 penalty); modifiers to Morale checks and other attributes are not multiplied.

When a battle begins, the unit leader selects one tactic to use for that battle (if the unit doesn’t know any tactics, the unit uses the standard tactic). At the start of each Tactical phase, the leader may try to change tactics by attempting a DC 15 Morale check. Success means the unit uses the new tactic for that phase (and the modifiers from the old tactic cease); failure means the unit continues to use its current tactic. The effects of tactics end when the battle does.

All units know the Full Defense, Furious Charge, and Standard tactics; these tactics do not count against this maximum. Tactics marked with † are usable only once during a battle by each unit as they represent either maneuvers based on limited resources or on battlefield deception. Some maneuvers require one or more kinds of specialized equipment for the unit performing it.

  • Cautious Combat: Your unit fights cautiously in order to maintain morale. Decrease its OM by 1, and add 1 to all of its Morale checks.
  • Cavalry Experts: Your unit’s OM increases by 2 against armies that aren’t mounted. Requirement: Your unit has Mounts.
  • Cavalry Sweep: Your unit is trained in making swift ride-by attacks against infantry, dashing across the battlefield and harrying the enemy. Your unit can attack two non-mounted armies in a single Melee phase. Your unit gains -2 to OM, and -1 to DV for the remainder of the Melee phase and your attacks deal only half damage, but you are not considered engaged after attacking a non-mounted unit. Requirement: Your unit has Mounts.
  • Covering Fire: Your unit keeps some of its soldiers back from the front lines in order to provide covering fire for you and allies and to strafe targets of opportunity trying to move around you. Once per Battle round, when your unit or an allied unit the Disengage or Retreat action, or a unit that routs or is destroyed, you can make a ranged attack against the enemy unit from which it is trying to disengage. If your attack hits, you inflict 1d4-1 Casualties on the enemy unit, and your allied unit gains a +1 bonus to DV and to opposed Morale checks made to disengage. Requirement: Your unit is able to make ranged attacks.
  • Defensive Wall: Your unit fights defensively, taking actions to protect fellow units as needed. Decrease its OM by 1, and increase its DV by 1.
  • Dirty Fighters†: Your unit uses trickery and unfair tactics to gain an advantage during battle. For one Action phase during this battle, its MV increases by 2.
  • Drive Back: Your unit can spend 2 acts to make a special melee attack. If your Offense check beats the target unit's DV, make an opposed Morale check against the target unit. If you succeed, your unit and the target unit moves one zone closer to the target unit's camp. If the target unit is engaged with any other units, it must make opposed Morale checks with those units. Any unit that beats the target unit's Morale check can make one free melee attack against it. You cannot make this special melee attack if your unit is engaged with any unit other than the target.
  • Escalade: Your unit climbs up a fortification or cliffside to melee attack its occupying enemy unit. While engaged with an enemy unit, your unit cannot change tactics. When making the attack, your unit takes a -1 penalty to OM and DV due to being exposed while climbing and the funneled your attack is (the penalty is halved for units with a climb speed, minimum -1). Requirement: Your unit has a climb speed, or in the same zone as an escalade ladder or siege tower.
  • False Retreat†: Once per battle, your unit can make a false retreat, luring a target enemy unit deeper into your territory. On the phase your unit makes a false retreat, it doesn’t attempt an Offense check, and make an opposed Leadership check with the enemy unit's leader. If your check is the higher of the two, both your unit and the target enemy unit move one zone closer to your Camp; if not, both units remain in place. Regardless of the outcome of the check, your unit gains a +2 bonus to its OM and DV against the target unit.
  • Feint: Your unit feigns an attack to draw enemies out of position and distract them from greater threats elsewhere on the battlefield. On a successful attack, you deal half damage but do not become engaged. In addition, your unit and the unit you attack must make opposed Morale checks with a bonus equal to the unit’s UCR. If you win this opposed check, the defending unit is drawn out of position and takes a -1 penalty to DV for the rest of the Battle round. If your attack fails, your unit becomes engaged with the defender.
  • Full Defense: Your unit focuses on total defense of the battlefield. Increase its DV by 2, and decrease its OM by 2.
  • Furious Charge: Your unit makes a furious rush to attack a defending unit. You gain +1 MV and -1 DV for the remainder of the Battle round. An engaged unit cannot use this tactic. If you successfully attack an enemy unit, it takes a -1 penalty to Morale checks made to try disengaging with you until the end of Battle round.
  • Magical Advantage: When selecting this tactic during the Tactical phase, target your own unit or an allied unit in the same zone as yours. Your unit loses one act in the Action phase, and your target gains a bonus to OM and to Morale checks equal to 1/2 of the highest maneuver, power, or spell level that the unit can cast (minimum 1). The bonus for spherecasters and practitioners is instead 1/4 of their level (minimum 1). The bonus is reduced by the number of size categories the target unit is larger than yours (minimum 0). At the start of the next Tactical phase, your target loses the bonus if they are not in the same zone as you. You may change target when selecting this tactic again during the Tactical phase. Requirement: Your unit must have at least one caster, initiator, or manifester level, or able to use magic or combat talents. You can change the target unit by spending an action.
  • Magical Barrage: Your unit can make Ranged attacks with a bonus to RV equal to 1/2 the highest maneuver, power, or spell level that the unit can cast (minimum 1). The bonus for spherecasters and practitioners is instead 1/4 of their level (minimum 1). Requirement: Your unit must have at least one caster, initiator, or manifester level, or able to use magic or combat talents.
  • Magical Healing: Your unit takes a -1 penalty to OM. At the end of the Casualties phase, your unit can heal 1d4 hp of damage per maneuver or spell level the unit can cast to itself or any one allied unit in the same zone. Spherecasters heal 1d4 hp plus another 1d4 at 4th level and every four levels after. The amount of healing is divided by 1 + the number of size categories that target unit is larger than yours (minimum 0). If the target unit is fatigued, that condition is removed but the damage healed is halved. If the target unit is exhausted, that condition is reduced to fatigued and the damage healed is halved. Alternatively, you can use this tactic as the Magical Barrage tactic against undead units. Requirement: Your unit must have the channel positive energy ability, have the triage ability, be able to cast at least the cure light wounds spell, or able to cast Life sphere talents.
  • Magical Protection: When selecting this tactic during the Tactical phase, target your own unit or an allied unit in the same zone as yours. Your unit loses on act during the Action phase, and your target gains a bonus to its DV equal to 1/2 the highest maneuver, power, or spell level the unit can cast (minimum 1). The bonus for spherecasters and practitioners is instead 1/4 of their level (minimum 1). The bonus is reduced by the number of size categories the target unit is larger than yours (minimum 0). At the start of the next Tactical phase, your target loses the bonus if they are not in the same zone as you. You may change target when selecting this tactic again during the Tactical phase. Requirement: Your unit must be capable of casting abjuration spells, have Protection talents, Guardian talents, or know the Eternal Guardian discipline.
  • Magical Trickery: When selecting this tactic during the Tactical phase, target one enemy unit up to 1 zone away from yours, and choose to affect either it’s MV, RV, DV, Morale, Mo, or Scouting. Your unit loses one act during the Action phase, and your target is confounded with illusions, mind-affecting effects, and magical barriers to sight and movement. The target unit takes a penalty equal to 1/2 the highest maneuver, power, or spell level that the unit can cast (minimum 1) to the selected attribute (Speed is reduced by 10 ft. per -1 penalty). The bonus for spherecasters and practitioners is instead 1/4 of their level (minimum 1). The penalty is reduced by the number of size categories the target unit is larger than yours (maximum of 0). If the target unit’s speed is reduced to 0, it cannot disengage or use any tactic, boon, or special ability requiring movement. You may change targets when selecting this tactic again during the Tactical phase. Requirement: Your unit must be able to cast at least one area-effect illusion or mind-affecting maneuver, power, spell, magic talent, or combat talent that impedes movement (e.g. grease, solid fog, wall of thorns).
  • Overwhelming Onslaught: Your unit makes a wild and reckless attack meant to overwhelm and overrun the defending unit. Your unit gains a +2 bonus to MV per 1 casualty willingly taken (these casualties are modified by your Strategy, as per Table: Strategies). If your attack succeeds against a target using Full Defense, Pike Square, or Screening Defense tactics, the defending unit must succeed on a Morale check (DC 10 + Attacker’s UCR) or those tactics are negated for the remainder of the Battle round. If the Morale check fails by 5 or more, that unit cannot use any of those tactics again for the remainder of the battle. If you successfully attack an enemy unit, it takes a -1 penalty to Morale checks made to try disengaging with you until the end of Battle round.
  • Pike Square: Your unit grounds its polearms and sets them to fend off enemies, especially mounted foes, while setting a shield wall to protect against infantry. Your unit gains -1 MV but gains +1 DV against mounted units and deals +1 casualties on a successful attack against a mounted unit. In addition, your unit deals +1 casualty against any unit using the Aggressive Attack strategy, +2 against armies using All-Out Attack strategy. Requirement: Your unit has Reach Weapons and no Mounts.
  • Pincer Maneuver: Your unit is trained to envelop an enemy unit engaged with yours. You gain +1 MV against a unit that is already engaged by an allied unit; however, because you are spread out you take a -1 penalty to your DV for the rest of the Action phase against attacks from armies that are not already engaged with you. Your unit's size must be equal or larger than the enemy to use this tactic. When you use this tactic, a unit engaged with you takes a -1 penalty to Morale checks made to disengage, retreat, or rout for the remainder of the Battle round.
  • Pursuit: When an enemy unit disengages, retreats, or routs from the battlefield, your unit can try to chase them down, even if they are in the Camp zone. Make an opposed Morale check against the target unit, with each unit adding +1 for every 10 ft. of their Speed to this check (you gain an additional +1 bonus if the target unit routed in the previous Action phase). This bonus is not modified by the unit's size modifier. If your Morale check succeeds, you force the target unit to remain in its starting zone, and can make a free melee or ranged attack against that unit. You cannot use this tactic if your unit is engaged.
  • Relentless Brutality: Your unit throws caution to the wind and attacks with savage and gory vigor. Increase its MV by 4, and decrease its DV by 4.
  • Screening Defense: Your unit may choose another unit to protect on the battlefield. The other unit must be in the same zone as yours. Melee attacks made against the unit you are protecting affect your unit instead. While using this tactic, your unit cannot attack any unit unless it first attacks you in melee. The unit you are protecting cannot be engaged by an enemy unit unless your unit is routed or destroyed. If the unit you are protecting is already engaged, it remains engaged; using this maneuver does not force the opposing unit to disengage. The unit you protect can be targeted with ranged attacks, though it gains a +1 bonus to DV against them. If a ranged attack hits either you or the unit you are guarding, the damage is split in half between the both of you.
  • Siegebreaker: Your unit targets another unit’s siege engines in an attempt to destroy them. If your unit damages the target unit, your unit attempts a second Offense check; if successful, destroy one of the target’s siege engines. This tactic has no effect on enemy armies without siege engines. In addition, a unit using this tactic can try to circumvent the protection of a unit using the Screening Defense tactic if the unit it protects is equipped with siege weapons. If your attack against the screening unit succeeds, your attack deals half damage to that unit and you can make a second attack against the protected unit and its siege weapons. This attack also deals half damage.
  • Skirmishers: Your unit makes a quick probing strike and then disengages. Your unit takes a -1 MV penalty and deals half damage on a successful melee attack, but you do not become engaged with the target unit whether or not your attack succeeds. Requirement: no medium or heavy armor.
  • Sniper Support: Your unit holds some ranged units in reserve to attack a target enemy unit during the Action phase. The unit cannot use the melee attack action during this Action phase, and can only use one of its acts make a range attack. If your unit damages the target unit, it deals 1 additional casualty from these ranged attacks. It can use its other act to Advance or Disengage, can be taken either before or after the range attack. The unit must have ranged attacks to use this tactic. Requirement: Your unit is able to make ranged attacks.
  • Spellbreaker: Your unit has specialists who can disrupt enemy spellcasting. Increase its DV by 2 against armies with the spellcasting ability.
  • Standard: Your unit’s attacks have no additional modifiers to its MV, RV, DV, or damage.
  • Strafing Skirmishers: Your unit keeps on the move while riddling its targets with quick volleys. When taking the move action, your unit make a range attack with disadvantage and deals half Casualties on a successful attack, and gains advantage on Morale checks to disengage. Requirement: ranged weapons, no medium or heavy armor.
  • Taunt†: Your unit is skilled at taunting its opponents, provoking stupid mistakes and overconfidence in battle. The target unit must attempt a Morale check (DC = 10 + your unit’s UCR) at the start of each Action phase; failure means it reduces its OM and DV against your unit by 1 for that phase. If the target unit succeeds at two of these Morale checks, it’s immune to this tactic for the remainder of the battle.

Special Abilities

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Certain creatures and classes have unique abilities that may play a part in mass combat, granting that unit with those abilities. Modifiers for these abilities apply only if most of the troops in a unit have the listed ability. Unless otherwise stated, bonuses and penalties to OM or DV provided by special abilities are multiplied by the unit's size modifier (minimum +1 bonus and -1 penalty); modifiers to Morale and other attributes are not multiplied. Note that you count as your own ally for abilities that effect allied units. For class abilities, the class level of the unit's troops must be high enough to have acquired those abilities.

  • Ability Damage or Drain: When you successfully attack in melee, the defending unit takes a -1d4 penalty to MV, RV, and DV for the remainder of the battle.
  • Alchemy: Once per battle round, the unit can use the Alchemical Creation resource for free.
  • Amorphous: This unit is immune to critical hits in mass combat; when an attacking unit rolls a natural 20 on its attack, they deal normal damage.
  • Amphibious: The unit can move in or across bodies of water and ignore Defense from water barriers.
  • Animal Companion: The unit’s animal companions increase the unit’s MV by 1. Animal companions that are at least one size category larger than the unit's creatures count as the Light Mounts resource for free which do not increase the unit's Consumption.
  • Aquatic: The unit increases its MV and DV by 1 against armies in the water or on ships. The unit decreases its MV by 2 against armies on land (unless the unit also has the amphibious special ability, in which case it doesn’t have this MV penalty).
  • Astral Suit: During the Tactical phase, this unit can choose to gain the effects of having the Medium or Heavy Armor resources without cost. The unit also begins knowing one of the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each tactic. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Arcane Spellcasting: A unit comprised of arcane spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities begins knowing one of the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, or Magical Protection, provided its members have astral suit customizations of the appropriate type to qualify for each tactic. They can only target themselves with Magical Advantage and Magical Protection. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Aura of Courage: The unit is immune to fear effects and automatically succeeds at Morale checks to avoid a rout.
  • Armor Training: This class feature removes the speed penalties of units in medium armor.
  • Bane: Once per day, a unit with this ability can gain a +1 bonus to OM to one attack. If successful, the attack deals an extra 1d3 points of damage. This ability affects only a single attack, even if this unit would be eligible to make an extra attack later in the Action phase, such as against a retreating unit.
  • Banner: A unit with this ability gains a +1 bonus to Morale checks to avoid routing, and it gains a +1 bonus to MV when using any of the following tactics: Cavalry Experts, Furious Charge, Overwhelming Onslaught, Pursuit.
  • Bleed: When this unit deals damage in melee, the target unit takes an automatic 1d6 points of damage at the start of the next phase.
  • Blindsense: The unit reduces its MV and DV penalties by half from darkness, invisibility, and weather, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Blindsight: The unit takes no penalties to its MV and DV from darkness, invisibility, or weather, and gains a +10 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Bomb: This ability functions as the breath weapon ability.
  • Brawlers: A unit whose members possess the augmented critical, rake, or rend abilities gains +1 MV for each ability it possesses when attacking an unit with which it is already engaged.
  • Breath Weapon: The unit can make Range attacks. When making Range and Melee attacks, it deals +1 points of damage per 3 dice of damage (rounding down) that their breath weapon deals.
  • Brew Potion: The unit can create healing or magical potions resources for itself or another unit without needing any of the building requirements described in the resource description. You must pay the BP cost for these potions as normal.
  • Burn: This ability functions as bleed.
  • Burrow: The unit can spend an act to become burrowed. While burrowed, it can only attack or be attacked by other units who have the burrow or earth glide special abilities, and it can advance as normal at its burrow speed through a zone with a fortification. When inside the zone with a fortification, it can choose to do melee attacks against its occupying units; however the unit loses its burrowed status, and the occupying units still gain the fortification's Defense bonus. The occupying units lose their fortification's Defense bonus against attacks from this unit on the following rounds as long as this unit does not leave the zone.
  • Cannibalize: Reduce Consumption by half (minimum 0) for any week in which the unit wins a battle and is allowed to feed on fallen corpses of an army of equal or greater size.
  • Challenge: Once per battle, the unit may increase its OM by 2 against a target unit, but it also reduces its DV by 1 against attacks from any unit that is not the target unit. These effects last for the rest of the battle.
  • Change Shape: The unit's Camouflage score increases by 3.
  • Channel Negative Energy: When making a Melee attack, the unit deals +1d4 points of damage against a living target unit. If the unit with this ability is undead, instead of dealing extra damage to an enemy unit, it can use this ability to heal itself; if it takes an OM penalty equal to half its UCR for one Ranged or Melee attack, it heals a number of hit points equal to its UCR.
  • Channel Positive Energy: When making a Melee attack, the unit deals +1d4 points of damage against an undead target unit. Instead of dealing extra damage to an enemy unit, the unit can use this ability to heal itself or an allied unit in the same zone; if it takes an OM penalty equal to half its UCR for one act, it heals a number of hit points equal to its UCR.
  • Charger: A unit whose members possess the pounce, powerful charge, or trample abilities gains +1 MV for each ability it possesses when attacking a unit with which it is not already engaged.
  • Climb: A unit with a climb speed can use the Advance action to move through zones with a vertical obstacle, such as a cliffside or the walls of a fortification, with two Advance actions. When in a zone with a fortification (except Moats), the unit can make melee attacks against the occupying units. When the unit makes their first melee attack against occupying units, the unit becomes vulnerable for the remainder of that battle round as their are exposed while climbing, allowing other units to gain advantage with their attacks against the climbing unit, and the targeted occupying unit still gains the fortification's Defense bonus. On the following rounds, if the climbing unit did not leave the zone with the fortification, they are considered on the fortification; they are no longer vulnerable, and occupying units they attack do not gain the fortification's Defense bonus.
  • Combat Style: At the beginning of battle, choose to increase either the unit’s MV or RV by 1 for the rest of the battle.
  • Constant Invisibility: The unit has the invisibility special ability (see below). In addition, their invisibility is not removed during battle. Any unit attacking this unit takes a –1 penalty to its MV and RV for that attack. Any unit attacked by this unit takes a –1 penalty to its DV against its attacks. Units that cannot see invisible creatures cannot prevent this unit from withdrawing.
  • Create Sandstorm: Once per battle, the unit can affect the field of battle with the sandstorm battlefield condition. The sandstorm lasts for the rest of the battle.
  • Create Spawn: If the unit destroys a living unit of equal or greater size, it may immediately recover a number of hit points equal to twice its UCR or create a new unit of its type but two sizes smaller than itself.
  • Construct: The unit is immune to disease, fear, paralysis, and poison, and never rout or become fatigued.
  • Create Spawn: If a unit with the energy drain ability destroys a living humanoid unit of equal or greater size, it may add a new unit of its own type to itself; a unit with 5 units already cannot create spawn.
  • Damage Reduction (Greater): A unit gains a +1 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/chaotic, evil, good, or lawful, or DR/magic. Attacking armies cannot ignore this bonus unless they have appropriately aligned weapons or natural attacks or if they are attacking with magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Damage Reduction (Improved): A unit gains a +1 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/bludgeoning, cold iron, piercing, silver, or slashing. Armies with superior weapons or magic weapons ignore this bonus. Attacking armies that have magical weapons or have damage reduction (magic) themselves ignore this, as do magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Damage Reduction (Magic): This unit gains a +1 bonus to DV per 5 points of DR/magic. Attacking armies that have magical weapons or have damage reduction (magic) themselves ignore this, as do magical abilities that bypass damage reduction.
  • Darkvision: The unit takes no OM or DV penalties in dim light or darkness.
  • Discovery: This ability functions as bleed.
  • Disease: If the unit damages an enemy, the enemy becomes diseased and takes a cumulative –1 penalty to its OM and DV each day after the battle. Curing the disease requires a successful Stability check modified by this penalty, and allows the unit to reduce this penalty by 1 each day thereafter until the penalty is gone. The disease can also be cured by a unit with the Magical Healing tactic or the Triage special ability.
  • Divine Bond: This unit gains either Magical Weapons or Heavy Mounts for one battle round per day. This does not affect the unit’s Consumption.
  • Divine Health: The unit is immune to disease.
  • Divine Spellcasting: A unit comprised of divine spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities begins knowing one of the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Healing, or Magical Protection tactics, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each tactic. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Dwarven Resilience: A unit of dwarves does not have its movement rate reduced when wearing Medium Armor or Heavy Armor and gains a +1 bonus to DV and Morale checks to resist poison and magical effects. The unit also gains a +2 DV bonus against armies comprised of creatures with the giant subtype.
  • Earth Glide: This ability functions as the burrow special ability.
  • Eidolon: This ability functions as the animal companion ability.
  • Elven Grace: A unit of elves gains a +1 bonus to Morale checks to resist Magical Trickery and a +1 bonus to scouting checks.
  • Endurance: A unit with this ability gains a +2 bonus to Morale checks to avoid fatigue or endure the effects of extreme climates.
  • Energy Drain: If the unit damages an enemy, it reduces the enemy’s OM and DV by 1 for 24 hours, and the attacking unit removes 2 Casualties each time it damages a living unit.
  • Energy Immunity: A unit with this ability takes no damage from attacks of the energy type to which it is immune.
  • Energy Resistance: A unit with this ability gains a +1 DV bonus for each 10 points of resistance against attacks with the enery type it has resistance to.
  • Evasion: A unit that attacks this unit halves damage from the breath weapon ability and attacks with the Magical Barrage tactic.
  • Fast Healing: At the beginning of the Tactical phase, this unit regains a number of hit points equal to half its fast healing value. Outside of battle, each hour the unit regains a number of hit points equal to its fast healing value.
  • Favored Enemy: The unit increases its MV and RV by 1 against a unit of a type of creature chosen from the ranger favored enemy list.
  • Favored Terrain: Reduce an enemy’s bonuses from advantageous terrain and battlefield advantage by half, gains a +1 bonus to both Scouting and Camouflage and can use the Living off the Land command boon whenever they are in their favored terrain.
  • Ferocity: The unit continues to fight even if demoralized or nearly dead. If the unit is defeated or routed, it may continue to act for one more battle round, and its OM and DV are reduced by 4 for that phase. The unit can also attack even when it has lost all of its sections (with the -5 penalty to all rolls due to loss sections). Creatures with the orc ferocity racial trait or its equivalent also gain this ability.
  • Flight: If the unit is not engaged in melee with a ground unit, it cannot be attacked with melee attacks except by a unit with flight. The unit ignores fortifications as obstacles to moving through zones. It also ignores the Defense bonus from City Walls, but not other fortifications.
  • Flurry of Blows: When making their first Melee attack, increase the unit’s MV by 1. When making a second and subsequent Melee attacks, increase it by 2 instead.
  • Grab: The unit’s units latch onto their opponents, making it difficult to escape. The target unit takes a –2 penalty on Morale checks to resist a rout or use the withdraw tactic.
  • Greater Animal Companion: The unit’s animal companions allow the unit to attack climbing, flying, or swimming armies in melee, with a -4 penalty to MV. When fighting a unit on the ground, the animal companions can serve as Light Mounts without increasing the unit’s Consumption.
  • Greater Favored Enemy: This unit increases its MV and RV by 2 against a unit comprised of one creature type and by +1 against a second creature type. If attacking a mounted unit, if this bonus applies against either the mount or the rider’s creature type, it applies against that unit.
  • Greater Inspire Courage: This unit gains a +2 bonus to MV and RV and a +3 bonus to Morale checks to avoid routing. In addition, when they are engaged with an enemy unit, any allied unit engaged with the same enemy unit gains the same bonuses. They also share these bonuses with any allied unit using the Screening Defense tactic to protect them (or vice versa).
  • Halfling Luck: A unit of halflings gains a +1 bonus to all Morale checks.
  • Hex: When you create a unit with this ability, choose either healing or cauldron.
    • Cauldron: The unit can create healing potions for itself or another unit without needing any of the building requirements described in the healing potion resource. You must pay the BP cost for these potions as normal.
    • Healing: Once per battle, the unit can heal a number of hit points equal to half its UCR.
  • Hunter’s Bond: When you create a unit with this ability, choose either companions or animal.
    • Companions: Once per battle, the unit may increase its MV and RV or an allied unit’s MV or RV by 1 for the rest of the battle.
    • Animal: This ability functions as animal companion.
  • Immunity: If a unit is immune to a particular special ability (such as poison), an enemy unit with that ability doesn’t gain those benefits against this unit. For a unit with many immunities, also see significant defense.
  • Improved Uncanny Dodge: A unit with this ability negates any bonuses an attacking unit would gain from any of the following Tactics: Expert Flankers, False Retreat, Pincer Maneuver.
  • Incorporeal: The unit takes no damage from non-magical attacks, and only half damage from magical attacks. It ignores enemy DV bonuses from armor resources. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw. It has a mobility advantage in all kinds of terrain.
  • Inspire Courage: The unit increases its MV and RV by 1 and gains a +2 bonus on Morale checks against fear and routs. Alternatively, the unit may apply these bonuses to an allied unit in the same battle.
  • Invisibility: The unit has a temporary form of invisibility that is removed during battle. This unit gains a +10 bonus to its Camouflage score.
  • Judgment: Once each Ranged or Melee attack, the unit may choose to increase its damage by 1, increase its DV by 1, heal a number of hit points equal to half its UCR, or treat its attacks as magic weapons. This ability is suspended for any phase in which the unit is unable to attack because of fear, and ends immediately if the unit routs.
  • Ki Pool: The unit’s attacks count as magic weapons.
  • Lay on Hands: This ability functions as channel positive energy.
  • Light Blindness: A unit of creatures with this special quality take penalties in bright light (see Visibility) as other creatures would take in darkness.
  • Light Sensitivity: A unit of creatures with this special quality takes penalties in bright light (see Visibility) as other creatures would take in dim light.
  • Low-Light Vision: The unit takes no penalties for dim light.
  • Maneuver Initiating: A unit comprised of martial initiators abilities begins knowing one of the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery tactics, using their highest maneuver level instead of spell level. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Marksmanship: A unit with this ability ignores up to 2 points of Defense bonus that a defending unit gains from terrain or fortifications. If shooting at an enemy unit engaged with a friendly unit, you never inflict friendly fire damage. Requirements: Precise Shot feat, Weapon Focus (bow or firearm).
  • Mercy: A unit with this ability can remove fatigue from itself when it heals itself with lay on hands. At the end of a battle, the unit can cure a disease on one allied unit. Requirements:
  • Mettle: Apply the unit’s mettle bonus on Morale checks against fear and routs.
  • Mindless: The unit never fails Morale checks, but must always use standard tactics and strategy.
  • Mobility: If the units have a form of mobility that gives them an advantage in the battlefield’s terrain (such as boggards in a swamp), increase the unit’s OM by 1 for that battle against armies without such mobility.
  • Mount: The unit gains the Mounts resource for free.
  • Orcish Ferocity: A unit of half-orcs or orcs gains the Ferocity special ability and gains a +1 bonus to opposed Morale checks when fighting an unit that has taken more casualties than they have.
  • Order: When using the challenge ability, increase the unit’s DV by 1 against the challenged unit.
  • Paralysis: Each time the unit damages an enemy unit, reduce the enemy unit’s DV by 1 and its Speed by 10 ft. If the enemy unit's speed reaches 0, that unit can continue to fight but cannot move, disengage, retreat, or withdraw, nor can it prevent enemy armies from disengaging or attack them when they do. The effects of paralysis can be removed by the Magical Healing ability. In addition, a unit can attempt a Morale check at the beginning of the next Rout phase to reduce the DV penalty caused by paralysis by 1, and the speed penalty by 10 ft.
  • Petrification: This ability functions as paralysis, but this effect cannot be removed by Magical Healing.
  • Plant: The unit is immune to fear, paralysis, and poison.
  • Poison Resistance: If the unit takes poison damage, reduce the damage by half of the unit’s poison resistance bonus.
  • Poison: This ability functions as bleed.
  • Pounce: The unit increases its MV by 2 when using the Furious Charge tactic.
  • Powerful Charge: The unit increases the damage it deals by 2 when using the Furious Charge tactic.
  • Psionic Manifesting: A unit comprised of psionic manifesters or creatures with psi-like abilities begins knowing one of the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery tactics, provided its members have psionic or psi-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each tactic. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Psychic Spellcasting: A unit comprised of psychic spellcasters or creatures with spell-like abilities begins knowing one fo the following tactics: Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, Magical Protection, or Magical Trickery tactics, provided its members have spells or spell-like abilities of the appropriate type to qualify for each tactic. They are later able to learn the remaining Magical tactics as normal.
  • Rage: Once per battle, the commander may order the unit to rage. Increase the unit’s MV by 2, decrease its DV by 1, and add a +1 bonus on its Morale checks against fear and routing. While this is in effect, the unit can’t use the tactics cautious combat, defensive wall, expert flankers, hold the line, sniper support, or withdraw; nor can it use the defensive or cautious strategies. If using such a tactic or strategy, you immediately switch to the standard tactic or strategy.
  • Rake: The unit increases the damage it deals by 1.
  • Regeneration: At the end of the Action phase, each section of the unit regains a number of hit points equal to half its regeneration value. When a unit with regeneration is reduced to 0 hp, it is defeated only if at least one enemy unit survives at the end of that phase to finish off the regenerating creatures. Outside of battle, the unit regains a number of hit points equal to half its regeneration value each hour.
  • Rend: The unit increases the damage it deals by 1.
  • Resistance: See the entry for significant defense.
  • Resolve: Once per battle, a unit with this ability can remove the fatigued condition from itself or can reroll any Morale check.
  • Rock Catching: The unit increases its DV by 1 against ranged attacks. This increases by an additional 1 if the unit is attacked with siege weapons or thrown rocks.
  • Rock Throwing: The unit can make ranged attacks. When making Range attacks, it deals +4 points of damage.
  • Rogue Talent: The unit gains the bleed ability.
  • Scent: The unit reduces its MV and DV penalties from darkness, invisibility, and weather by half, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Shield Ally: Increase the unit’s DV by 1.
  • Significant Defense: The unit has a significant defense such as powerful damage reduction or numerous immunities and/or resistances. Increase its DV by 10, but only against armies that can’t overcome those defenses. In some cases, the GM might rule that a unit is simply undefeatable by an enemy unit because of its defenses (though the GM should never pit the PCs against such a unit unless the PCs initiate a foolish battle). Requirements:
  • Smite Evil: In one Tactical phase per battle, the unit may increase its OM by 1 against an evil unit. If the target unit is undead or evil outsiders, the OM increases by 2 instead. In addition, when this ability is used, this unit’s attacks ignores any damage reduction if the defending unit is evil. This ability can be used in only one Battle Turn per day.
  • Smite Good: This functions identically to Smite Evil, but with an enhanced effect against good creatures.
  • Sneak Attack: The unit increases its MV and RV by 1 when making an ambush, on the phase after using the False Retreat tactic, or in conjunction with the Pincer Maneuver Tactic or the Expert Flankers or Wolves in the Fold command boons. In addition, on a successful attack when using this ability, the attack deals an additional +1 point of damage for every 2 levels of the ninjas or rogues in the unit over 1st.
  • Speed Surge: Once per battle, the unit can take a 3rd act during one battle round to make a move action.
  • Spell Resistance: This unit gains +1 DV and a +1 bonus to Morale per 5 points of spell resistance, but these bonuses apply only when an attacking unit uses the Magical Advantage, Magical Barrage, or Magical Trickery command boons.
  • Stunning Fist: This ability functions as paralysis.
  • Swarm: The unit takes half damage from non-magical attacks, but 1-1/2 times as much damage from magical attacks. It ignores DV bonuses from armor resources. It can’t harm a unit with the incorporeal or significant defense ability. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw.
  • Swim: The unit is able to move through a zone with a water obstacle at its swim speed, and the Moat fortification does not impede its movement. While in a zone with a Moat or water obstacle, the unit can only melee attack or be melee attacked by units with the swim special ability. However, it becomes vulnerable to range attacks, and range attacking units gain advantage. This can be negated by using an Advance action to change depths (see Battle Zones: Altitude Zones).
  • Tactician: The unit automatically learns one tactic (usually the cavalry experts tactic); this doesn’t count toward a unit’s maximum number of known tactics.
  • Teleportation: The unit ignores the Defense of fortifications. It automatically succeeds at checks to withdraw. Ethereal travel and similar effects also grant this ability. A unit with teleportation can travel to any hex on the same day (its speed is irrelevant and not hampered by difficult terrain).
  • Touch Attack: A unit able to make melee or ranged touch attacks ignores any DV bonuses provided by Medium Armor, Heavy Armor, or Shields.
  • Track: The unit adds its UCR to Morale checks to prevent a unit from using the withdraw tactic and to its DV to prevent ambushes. It reduces the damage it deals in fog by one quarter instead of one half, gains a +1 bonus to its Scouting score.
  • Trackless Step: A unit with this ability gains a +1 bonus to its Camouflage score.
  • Trap Sense: When using the siegebreaker tactic, the unit adds half its UCR to the Offense check to determine if a siege engine is destroyed.
  • Tremorsense: The unit reduces its MV and DV penalties from darkness, invisibility, and weather by half, and gains a +5 bonus to its Scouting modifier.
  • Triage: The unit can use this ability to heal itself or an allied unit in the same zone by spending 1 act, healing a number of hit points equal to its UCR. The recipient unit's leader can decide how to split the healing among its sections.
  • Trip: When the unit makes Melee attack, the target enemy unit reduces its DV by 1 and takes a -10 ft. Speed penalty until the end of the current Action phase.
  • Uncanny Dodge: If a unit with this ability is ambushed, the attacking unit must resolve the attack as a normal attack. A unit with this ability is unaffected by Feint tactics.
  • Undead: The unit is immune to disease, fear, paralysis, and poison. Its DV increases by 1.
  • Unnatural Aura: This ability functions as fear, but applies only to animals (including animal mounts).
  • Vortex: This ability functions as paralysis, but only against targets on or in the water and if the attacking unit chooses to remain engaged with the defending unit. A unit with this ability gains +1 OM against swimming or shipboard armies and can automatically disengage from them after attacking in melee, and automatically succeeds at opposed checks to retreat or withdraw. A unit with vortex can also attack two swimming or shipboard armies in the same Action phase, making separate Melee attacks against each and dealing half damage with each attack. The Screening Defense tactic is ineffective against a unit with the vortex ability.
  • Weapon Specialization: Once per battle, increase the unit’s OM for either ranged or melee attacks by 2.
  • Whirlwind: This ability functions as paralysis, only if the attacking unit chooses to remain engaged with the defending unit. A unit with this ability gains +1 OM against flying armies and can automatically disengage from any unit after attacking in melee, automatically succeeding at opposed checks to retreat or withdraw. A unit with the whirlwind ability can also attack two armies in the same Action phase, making separate Melee attacks against each and dealing half damage with each attack. The Screening Defense tactic is ineffective against a unit with the whirlwind ability.
  • Wild Empathy: A unit with this ability gains a +1 DV bonus against units that include animals, including units with mounts.
  • Wild Shape: Once per battle, the unit may gain the aquatic, amphibious, climb, darkvision, flight, low-light vision, or scent special abilities, but loses the spellcasting ability while this is in effect. The unit can end this ability in any later phase.
  • Woodland Stride: A unit with this ability ignores penalties from rough terrain (see Terrain) comprised of plants, undergrowth, and trees.

Actions

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Advance (Simple)
If your unit is not engaged, then it can move into an adjacent zone. Units with movement speed of 15 ft. or less require 2 acts to advance across one zone. Starting at a movement speed of 35 ft., units can advance across two zones in one act, and one additional zone for every additional 30 feet of movement speed.

Disengage (Simple)
Your unit tries to escape from all enemy units engaged with it. Your unit attempts an opposed Morale check against each enemy unit engaged with it to maintain discipline (any unit may voluntarily fail this check). The enemy units gain a +1 bonus to this check for every 10 ft. of Speed above yours, and a -1 penalty for every 10 ft. under. If all of these checks are successful, your unit is no longer engaged. If only some are successful, your unit is no longer engaged, but enemy units that won the Morale check can make a free melee attack against you. If none of the checks succeed, you remain engaged with the attacking units. Whether or not the checks are successful, reduce your unit’s OM and DV by 1 for the rest of this phase (this penalty is multiplied by your units size modifier).

Hold Action (Simple)
On its first act of the Action phase, your unit rearranges its formation and focus to hold its second act. Determine an event as a trigger and what simple action for your unit to take. If that trigger occurs before the end of the current Action phase, your unit immediately performs the chosen second action before the effects of the triggering event occur. Your unit must not be engaged to perform this action.

Melee Attack (Simple)
Your unit makes a melee attack against another unit in the same zone, and becomes engaged with it, using a variety of special tactics to outmaneuver and destroy their opponents. If your unit is already engaged, then the attack is against one of the units it is engaged with. Your unit can only perform the melee attack action once per Action phase.

Engagement: When a unit attacks another in melee, the units become engaged even if the attack fails. Engaged units are caught up in the fighting, and cannot leave the zone until all opposing units are defeated, destroyed, or routed from the field, or until one side performs a successful Retreat, Withdrawal, or similar tactic that allows it to disengage from its enemies and those enemies either cannot or choose not to pursue them.

Flanking: Your unit flanks an enemy unit when it attacks the enemy that is already engaged with an ally unit. Your unit must be in the same zone as the enemy unit. Flanking grants your unit advantage on its melee attack roll. Both your unit and your ally unit gain the flanking advantage on the same enemy unit once you are both engaged with it.

Ranged Attack (Simple)
If your unit has a Ranged Value and is not engaged, then it can make a ranged attack against another unit up to 2 zones away. Your unit can only perform the ranged attack action once per Action phase.

Friendly Fire: When a unit makes a ranged attack against an enemy unit that is engaged with one of your armies, it has a 25% chance of dealing 1d6-3 points of damage to the allied unit regardless of whether its attack is successful. If your ranged attack roll is a natural 1, your allied unit automatically takes 1d6-3 points of damage, while on a natural 20 your allied unit never takes damage from friendly fire. A unit taking damage from friendly fire loses 1 point of Morale.

Retreat (Standard)
If your unit is in a zone belonging to any zone along the edge of the battlefield, you can exit the battlefield completely. Your unit's Morale is reduced by 2. This action works as the Disengage action, except if your unit successfully in disenges, it leaves the battlefield at twice its movement speed for 1 battle round. However, before your unit leaves the battlefield, any enemy unit who has not yet acted this Action phase may spend one of their acts to make a Ranged attack against you if they are in range.

Attacking And Taking Casualties

In mass combat, the hundreds of individual attacks that take place in one battle phase overlap each other enough that who actually attacks first is irrelevant.

When making an attack, either ranged or in melee, the army unit makes an Offense check (1d20 + either their MV or RV depending on the type of attack) and compares the result to the target unit's DV.

If the Offense check is less than or equal the target army's DV, the army deals no damage that phase.

If the Offense check is greater than defender's DV, the defending army takes Casualties equal to the result of the attacker's Offense check minus the defender's DV. For example, if the attacker's Offense check is 11 and the defender's DV is 7, the defending army takes 4 points of Casualties.

If the Offense check is a natural 20, add 10 to the check's result; if the check's result is still lower than the enemy army's DV, the attacking army still deals 1 point of casualties. If the Offense check is a natural 1, the attack automatically fails, and that army can't attempt an Offense Check in the next Action phase due to some setback: a misheard order, getting stuck in mud, and so on.

In the Casualties phase, each unit deducts its Casualties from its sections. The unit's leader must roll a leadership check with a DC of 10 plus the amount of Casualties the unit received. If successful, the leader may divide the number of casualties between two sections chosen to receive them. For every 5 that the check beats the DC, the leader may choose to divide the damage between an additional section, up to the maximum number of sections the unit has. If the check fails, then the section with the least amount of hit points receives the damage first. Damage exceeding a section's remaining hp is applied to the next section with the lowest hit points. A section reduced to 0 hit points is destroyed.

Defeated, Destroyed, Disbanded

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  • Defeated Units: A unit that has all of its sections reduced to 0 hit points is defeated, and is automatically fatigued and routing. While still on the battlefield, it can be attacked. Following the battle, it can be taken prisoner or massacred by its enemies, or recovered, reformed, and restored to fighting strength by its allies (see Victory and Aftermath). Unless destroyed or massacred, a defeated unit has enough surviving soldiers to later form one section after the battle has ended, but this unit of survivors gain the exhausted and shaken conditions until it gains 8 hours of rest. When the army commander's unit is defeated, Army Morale is reduced by 2.
  • Destroyed Units: If a defeated unit is successfully attacked before the battle ends by an enemy unit of at least half its size, the defeated unit is instead destroyed and ceases to exist as a fighting force. Any survivors are individuals who are wounded, or surrendered or deserted. If the destroyed unit was led by its army's commander, Army Morale is reduced by 2. The commander can then be dealt with as described in the Victory and Aftermath section.
    • An army is destroyed when all of its units are destroyed. When this happens, its nation loses 1 point of Fame. In addition, there is a 25% chance that the city where the army is based from has a Building Demand event during the next nation turn, demanding a Monument to be erected as a memorial to the fallen. This is in addition to any other nation events that may occur. Unrest increases by 1 every month this demand is not met.
  • Disbanded Units: When unit's Morale reaches -11 or lower and its leader fails a Morale check, the unit not only routs from the battlefield but actually ceases to exist as a fighting force, disintegrating in a combination of flight and surrender. When a unit disbands, 50% of its number are counted as Casualties to the nation’s population, as those soldiers desert their country and flee for safer lands where their shame will not follow them. The other 50% of the soldiers filter back into the population of their nation. If the disbanded unit was led by the army's commander, the army's Morale is reduced by 1, but the commander is able to return to the Command zone and can be reassigned to another unit in that zone during the next Tactics phase.
    • When a unit disbands, the army commander must succeed at a leadership check, or else the Army Morale reduces by 1; this stacks if more than one unit disbands. When an army disbands, the nation for which it fights takes a permanent -1 penalty to Fame, Loyalty, and Stability and the settlement where the army was based from takes a permanent -2 penalty to Law for 1 year.
    • If an enemy army disbands while you are at war (rather than, for example, disbanding because of lack of pay or training during peacetime), one of your army within one hex of the disbanded army gains a supply of BP equal to 1/2 the disbanded army’s ACR. If you create a new army in a settlement within 3 hexes of the site of the enemy army’s desertion, you gain a one-time bonus equal to 1/2 of the disbanded army's ACR to your next Loyalty check to recruit soldiers as you take advantage of disaffected deserters from your enemy who have turned to your side.
  • Leaders and Losses: At the end of the Rout phase, a d% should be rolled for destroyed or disbanded units to determine if their leader and any significant character fighting with it are able to escape (01-30), are killed (31-50), or are captured by the opposing army (51-00). Player characters should typically escape with 25% of their hit points rather than being killed, or the GM may run an individual combat encounter to resolve their fate. In any event, characters that escape can spend one Action phase making their way to the Command Zone (not counting the phase in which their army was eliminated). Once there, the army commander can reassign them to a new unit, and in subsequent Action phases, they can again make use of their command boon (not including permanent boons). If the destroyed or disbanded unit's leader is the army commander, and they are killed or captured, the army's units no longer gain bonuses to LB from their commander and no longer benefit from their boons and tactics.

Victory and Aftermath

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Once all armies but those belonging to one side have been eliminated, whether defeated, destroyed, disbanded, routed, or retreated from the field, the remaining side is victorious.

Victory: If your army is the last one left on the battlefield (not counting other friendly armies), it is victorious. Each time an army wins a battle, each of its unit leaders can make a Leadership check to see if their unit learns a new tactic and increase its its Morale by 1. The DC is equal to 15 + the number of tactics already known to the unit. Additionally, a unit leader who succeeds at the first Leadership check can then make another Leadership check to learn a new boon, with the DC equal to 15 + the number of boons already known to the unit leader.

Fighting the Enemy Commander: When the unit led by its army's commander has been destroyed, that commander can be captured or killed. If d% check results in capture, you can resolve this encounter in several ways.

  • Combat: The leader(s) of your army can engage in direct character-to-character combat with the leader(s) of the enemy army. This plays out using the standard personal combat rules, but leaders from the victorious army gain a +2 morale bonus to attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and initiative for the duration of this combat. Your armies generally do not participate directly in this kind of confrontation, as they are assumed to be securing the area and taking junior commanders and soldiers into custody while the major PCs and NPCs fight. If an NPC leader ends a round of combat at less than half his or her hit points, there is a 50% chance per round that the leader surrenders.
  • Execution: If a commander or other significant leader is captured, the leaders of the triumphant army have the option to publicly execute that leader. If that leader is a player character, they should generally be allowed the chance to escape execution by playing out a normal combat encounter; however, if they have already been overcome and rendered helpless in normal combat, execution may be their fate. NPC leaders are killed automatically if the victorious leader calls for execution. Being killed in combat is not considered an execution, nor is a leader choosing to commit suicide; a leader must be slain as a helpless captive (usually by a coup de grace) for it to be treated as an execution.
    • Executing an enemy leader earns +1 Infamy for the nation whose army performs the execution if the executed character is a nation leader (+2 if they are the ruler). If you execute all leaders you capture in a battle, rather than just one, you earn double the Infamy modifier for the highest-ranking leader you execute. Executing ordinary military commanders that are not nation leaders does not affect a nation’s Infamy.
  • Ransom: Leaders captured in battle (including those whose armies have been destroyed, even if their side later won the battle) may be held for ransom. A usual ransom demand is 1 BP times the captive leader’s character level for a nation leader. This ransom demand is halved for a leader that does not have a leadership role in the nation (i.e., an ordinary military commander) but is doubled if the captive leader is the nation’s ruler.
    • These ransom demands typically include only the ransomed person and a noble or royal outfit of ordinary clothing, though the leader’s captors can of course return any additional items they choose. If double the normal ransom is paid, the ransomed character’s goods are returned along with them. At the GM’s option, individual items may also be ransomed separately; if the captors are unaware that an item is magical, the nature of their enchantment or its market value. For example, their ransom for the royal crown is not required to be equal to its sale price as a piece of jewelry.
    • Offering to return leaders that you hold captive in exchange for a ransom is considered a mark of honor and gains your nation +1 Fame for a nation leader, +2 Fame for a ruler. You gain an additional +1 Fame if you offer to ransom all leaders you capture in a battle (assuming there is more than one). If you pay a ransom to recover your leaders, you lose an amount of Fame for your own country equal to what the captor’s nation gains; however, you gain an equivalent bonus to Loyalty, as your subjects appreciate the lengths to which the nation will go to reclaim its own.

Loot: The victorious army is able to loot the defeated enemy army of their equipment or harvest their remains. The victorious army gains BP equal to half of the defeated army's ACR. If the defeated army is outside of their territory or contested hexes, the victorious army is also able to loot its BP stockpile (if any). This is usually equal to the defeated army's ACR, but may vary at GM's discretion.

Casualties: After a battle, determine the number of Casualties each unit of your army has suffered. A unit loses 20% of its soldiers for ever section that is reduced to 0 during the battle. Having soldiers captured or killed in battle (or deserting from the field) has a significant impact on the health and vitality of a nation. Soldiers killed or captured in battle count as Casualties to your nation.

Fame and Infamy: After the battle, the nation of the victorious army gains a bonus to either Fame or Infamy equal to the combined ACR of all defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed enemy armies divided by the combined ACR of all armies on the victorious side (minimum 0). This bonus is doubled if the victorious army is able to triumph while losing no more than 1 unit. This bonus is increased by +1 if a Fort is captured and occupied, and +1 per district if a settlement is captured and occupied. The nation of an army on the losing side in a battle loses Fame equal to the bonus gained by the victorious side.

Prisoners of War: As described in the Defeated, Destroyed, Disbanded section, armies on the losing side in a battle are rarely if ever completely wiped out. Generally, 20% of the soldiers of a defeated unit can be taken prisoner, while only 10% for a destroyed unit. This raises the question, of course, of what to do with enemy soldiers now in your custody. Turning them loose to rejoin their fellows in the fight against you is hardly a viable option (though officers and leaders may be ransomed). Generally speaking, a victorious army has three options: forced labor, internment, or massacre.

  • Civilian Prisoners: Civilian populations can be rounded up and imprisoned, put to work, or slaughtered just as captured soldiers can. This allows you to reduce the enemy nation's Manpower, and their loss are treated as Casualties to their population. Abuse of civilians is generally frowned upon. Imprisoning civilians generates +1 Infamy per 1,000 civilians placed in internment, and Infamy modifiers for forced labor and massacre are doubled. However, civilians are generally less likely (or less able) to rebel against their captors, and each civilian counts as only 1/10 of a prisoner of war for the purpose of how many guards are required.
    • If any portion of a civilian population of a hex or a settlement is made captive, any nation bonuses from improvements in that hex or settlement (except for Defense value) is halved; if 50% or more of the civilian population is eliminated, all nation benefits for those improvements or buildings are lost.
  • Forced Labor: Soldiers captured in battle can be put under guard and forced to work for the benefit of their new nation. For each 100 captives forced to work for a full month, you can reduce the cost of any terrain improvement by 1 BP, or you can compel them to labor on a Farm, Mine, Quarry, or Sawmill, increasing the BP output (or Consumption reduction) of that improvement by 1. Forced laborers do not increase your nation’s Consumption, as their unpaid labor and meager standard of living offset what little they consume. However, using prisoners for forced labor results in a -1 penalty to Stability per 100 forced laborers (or fraction thereof), and your nation gains +1 Infamy each month it uses prisoners for forced labor. Prisoners used for forced labor must be guarded at all times, as described under internment below.
  • Internment: Soldiers captured in battle can simply be locked away, kept as prisoners for the duration of the conflict. Prisoners must be kept under guard, either in temporary stockades or permanent prisons. Any army capable of fighting can guard a number of soldiers equal to 10 times their number. If there are more prisoners than this, the nation holding the captives must make a Stability check each week with a cumulative -1 penalty for each multiple of the number of guards beyond x10 (e.g., an army of 20 soldiers could safely guard up to 200 prisoners; if there were 250 prisoners, a weekly Stability check would be required with a -2 penalty, since there are 12.5 times as many prisoners as guards, which exceeds the limit by 2 multiples over x10). A failed Stability check results in an uprising among the prisoners, which is treated as a Vandals (if prisoners are kept inside a settlement) or Bandit Activity (if outside a settlement) nation event.
    • Prisoners can instead be escorted to permanent internment at a Barracks, Fort, Garrison, or Jail; a Barracks or Jail can hold up to 100 prisoners each while a Fort or Garrison can hold up to 200. This number can be increased by crowding prisoners into narrow quarters, up to five times the normal amount, but each additional 100 (Barracks or Jail) or 200 (Fort or Garrison) prisoners or fraction thereof beyond a building’s normal capacity generates 1 point of Unrest. Garrisoning army at the same building to its full capacity reduces the Unrest generated by excess prisoners by half.
    • Interning captives increases your nation’s Consumption by 1 per 100 prisoners (minimum 0). You may choose to reduce this Consumption increase by half by starving your prisoners; however, doing so causes you to gain +1 Infamy each month.
  • Massacre: A victorious army may decide that they lack the resources or the desire to keep its captive enemies alive, choosing instead to wipe them out, killing them to the last. Massacre of enemy forces earns +1 Infamy per unit put to death (regardless of size), plus an additional +1 Infamy for every 1,000 soldiers (or fraction thereof) of all of the units put to death combined. Your nation earns +2 Infamy for the massacre of any number of civilians, plus an additional +1 Infamy for every 100 civilians (or fraction thereof).

Fatigue

An active unit risks becoming fatigued after the first hour of being on the battlefield. A unit is considered active if it is present in any battle zone except for the Camp zone. Even units not engaged in combat, but still on the field, are at risk of becoming fatigued as remaining on guard and ready to fight can be tiring in and of itself. At the end of the first hour of battle, and every hour thereafter, the unit must make a Morale check during the Rout phase to avoid becoming fatigued, starting at DC 10 and increasing by 5 every hour after the first.

An army unit that becomes fatigued takes a -1 penalty to OM, DV, and Morale, and cannot use the Furious Charge or Overwhelming Onslaught tactics. If a unit continues to remain on the battlefield while fatigued, it must continue to make fatigue Morale checks every hour, and if it fails, it become exhausted. Its penalties to OM, DV, and Morale increase to -3 and its movement speed is halved, and it cannot use the Cavalry Sweep, False Retreat, Pincer Maneuver, Pursuit, Skirmishers, or Strafing Skirmishers maneuvers. If an exhausted unit remains on the battlefield, it continues to make fatigue Morale checks during the Rout phase, and the unit takes 1 damage to each section if it fails.

To remove fatigue, a unit must retreat or withdraw from the battlefield to the Camp zone, and remain there without engaging another unit or being attacked for at least 8 consecutive rounds; on the 8th round, the unit attempts a Morale check to remove fatigue. If a unit in the Camp takes an action or is attacked during one battle round, the number of rounds it is considered to have rested is reduced by 1 (to a minimum of zero). If a battle ceases for at least 8 consecutive hours, armies on all sides can attempt an army Morale check to recover from fatigue. If a unit is exhausted, making one Morale check to recover improves its condition to fatigued. The unit can attempt an additional Morale check for each round it continues to rest away from the battlefield to remove the fatigued condition.

Units with unlimited use of abilities or spells that can remove fatigue, such as lesser restoration or heal, can remove the fatigued condition of an ally unit up to 50 times their troop count in one hour.

Healing After Battle

A unit that remains on the field or is able to retreat from it without being defeated can rest for 1 hour in order to regain 1 hp to each of its sections that were not destroyed. Sections regain 1 hit point for each additional hour of rest. Units that are marching, guarding prisoners, or performing other light-duty tasks heal 1 hp every 2 hours instead. Units that engage in a battle or that take damage from a forced march do not heal at all.

A unit that has been defeated but is able to reach the Camp zone or exit the battlefield regains 1 hit point after 1 round of rest to only one section. After this time, it can again function as a unit, including using the healing rules described above. If the unit is destroyed or disbands, it cannot heal. The Magical Healing command boon or Healing Potions resource doubles the number of hit points regained by one unit during the first round of its rest.

A section that is destroyed represents all soldiers in that section being killed in battle. A section that does not have full hp represents that a number of its soldiers are injured and unable to continue fighting, but can still be healed. The number of wounded soldiers per section is calculated by dividing the section's missing hp by the unit's total hp multiplied by the unit's total number of soldiers.

Lost sections can be replenished by garrisoning the unit in a settlement that is able to recruit the same type of unit of its size. During the nation's Decision phase, the General can spend 1/5 of the unit's Consumption for each section to replenish, and the section will be replenished at the start of the next Decision phase.

Parley

Once per battle, at the beginning of any Battle phase, the commander of either army may ask for parley, a meeting under a flag of truce with a spokesperson for the opposing side. You must use this maneuver before any army has attacked in the Battle phase.

The commander asking for Parley must make a Diplomacy or Intimidate check opposed by the Diplomacy or Intimidate check of the opposing general. When using Diplomacy, the commander adds his nation’s Fame score to this check. When using Intimidate, the commander adds his nation’s Infamy score instead. Each commander chooses which skill to use and need not choose the same skill.

A commander takes a -1 penalty for each unit under his command that has been defeated or routed, -2 for each that has been destroyed. If your check equals or exceeds the opposing general’s, you can force them (or their representative) to come forth and meet you under a temporary truce to discuss terms of surrender or withdrawal from the field, to offer a challenge of champions or other contest, to exchange hostages or negotiate ransom, or simply to taunt and bluster at one another. Armies normally do not attack during the Ranged or Melee phases when a Parley occurs, though they may use command boons or disengage from enemy armies, or perform other actions that are not attacks. If a unit does attack during a Parley, the nation whose army it is gains +1d4 Infamy, and each unit that attacks loses 1 point of Morale. In addition, your armies gain a +1 bonus to OM and on opposed Morale checks against any army that attacks during the Parley for the remainder of the battle.

Battle Zones

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When armies meet, the battlefield is divided into multiple zones of engagement. These are listed below, starting from furthest away from the center of the battle, to the nearest.

  • Camp: This represents an army’s base of operations, which may be a temporary bivouac or a permanent fortification. Army units in this zone are usually deployed here to protect the army's camp, and if need be, engage the enemy to delay them and allow the rest of the army to retreat.
  • Command: This is the area where the army’s leader directs the flow of battle. The army's leader must be at least this far in order to participate in the battle. Army units deployed in this zone are usually assigned to defend the army commander, or used as reserves and reinforcements for the front lines.
  • Rear: This represents the back lines of an army on the field, with forces usually arrayed to engage in ranged combat.
  • Front: This represents the front lines of any battle, where forces meet in close and brutal combat.

It is easier to visualize these zones as concentric circles with an army's Camp zone at the center. Each army has their own set of battle zones, and if you want your forces to reach the enemy's Command zone, you must advance your army through your own Front zone into the enemy's Front zone, then through their Rear zone, and finally into their Command zone.

A unit that is within an army's Front zone (including its own army) can advance into the Front zone of any other army on the field of battle. However, if the unit moves deeper in such as the Rear or Command zones, it cannot move to another army's zone until it returns to the Front zone of the army it is in.

At the beginning of the battle, unless otherwise stated, all units begin either in the Camp, Command, or Rear zones, as decided by the army commander.

Lateral Zones: In addtion to the forward and rear battle zones, armies are laterally split along three columns: the left and right flanks on either side, and the center column in the middle. Like battle zones, units may spend their Ranged Phase to move to the adjacent lateral zone.

  • Left Flank: Your army's Left Flank is opposed by the enemy army's Right.
  • Center Column: The middle area of your army.
  • Right Flank: Your army's Right Flank is opposed by the enemy's Left.

Altitude Zones: Similar to battle zones, altitude zones are areas of the battlefield on a vertical axis, either above or below the surface. These zones exist only in relation of the standard ground or naval battle; battles that occur solely in the air or under water use only the standard battle zones and special elevation rules.

  • Seafloor: This is a special depth zone that applies whenever there is a submerged structure or terrain that is relevant to the course of a battle. The Seafloor can exist in the Abyssal, Deep or Shallow zones, depending on the depth of the water. A battle on the Seafloor works similarly to a second Surface depth level, in that creatures on the Seafloor and creatures in the adjoining Shallows or Deep can engage in ranged combat but cannot engage in melee unless either the swimming creatures come down to the Seafloor or the creatures on the Seafloor leave it and swim up into the open water.
  • Deep: Units in this depth zone cannot effectively see units on the surface or be seen by them, and are too far away to effectively attack or be attacked by them.
  • Shallow: Units in this depth zone are beyond the reach of melee attacks, except by other creatures that are also swimming in the shallows. However, they can still see creatures and vessels on the surface and can be seen themselves, though with some difficulty. Creatures in the shallows can attack with or be attacked by ranged attacks, though such attacks are made at a substantial penalty.
  • Surface: The zone represents the stable area that divides between the depths and altitudes, being either solid ground or the surface of water. Units in this zone are neither flying nor burrowing or diving, though they may be swimming upon the surface.
  • Low Altitude: Units in this altitude zone are well out of range of melee attacks but can attack with (and be attacked by) ordinary ranged attacks. Aerial units can attack at this range with dropped items with reasonable accuracy.
  • Medium Altitude: Units in this altitude zone fly on the fringes of the battle zone, able to attack with (and be attacked by) siege weapons, but otherwise out of reach of standard ranged attacks. Aerial units at this altitude can attack ground units with dropped items but with Disadvantage.
  • High Altitude: Units in this altitude zone are too far away to effectively attack units on the ground or be attacked by them.

Fortifications

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One or more allied units in the same zone as an unoccupied fortification can occupy it by spending an action during the Action phase. A unit can retire from a fortification without spending an act. Occupying a fortification gives the occupying units the fortification's Defense bonus. Siege units, and units with chariots, howdahs, or mounts cannot occupy a fortification; however, those units can temporarily unequip those resources, losing their benefits, but then be able to occupy the fortification. Unequipping a resource requires no action, but equipping it takes one act.

Enemy units cannot target units occupying a fortification with melee attacks, and vice versa. However, units can use ladder and siege tower siege units to use melee attacks against occupying units (see Siege Engines).

Fortifications are large enough to be an obstacle, allowing units to enter its zone, but not advance further to another other zone except for the one the units came from. However, unless otherwise stated, all fortifications have an entry point. A unit occupying a fortification can open its entry point, allowing units to pass through to other zones as normal. Units with some special abilities can ignore a fortification as an obstacle to moving through its zone, such as Flight, (see Special Abilities).

Attacking and Damaging Fortifications

Units can use melee and range attacks to destroy a fortification. Fortifications have a DV equal to 15 + their Defense bonus. They reduce damage received by an amount equal to their DV (to a minimum of 0), except for damage from siege units. They have an hp value equal to five times their BP value. Units using melee attacks against a fortification become engaged, and are subject to flanking from enemy units. However, they do not require a Morale check to disengage from the fortification; the normal disengage rules applies against other units the unit is also engaged with.

When a fortification's hp falls to half of its total or lower, the fortification becomes breached. A breached fortification allows units to pass through the zone it occupies, but at the cost of two Advance acts due to the unit having to squeeze through the breach and overcome debris. The breached fortification still provides its Defense bonus to its occupied units, but those units can now be attacked with melee attacks.

When their hp is reduced to zero, they are destroyed. A destroyed fortification no longer provides any Defense bonus to units, cannot be occupied by units, and are no longer an obstacle on the battlefield. It still takes two Advance acts to move through a zone with a destroyed fortification as units need to navigate around significant debris.

Repairing Fortifications

Once a fortification becomes breached, the occupying army can pay BP equal to the fortification's Defense bonus to repair it. Repairing a fortification requires 8 hours of activity for a platoon. The repair time is halved for every unit size category larger, to a minimum of 1 hour. A destroyed fortification can be repaired in the same way, but the occupying army must pay the BP cost twice, once from destroyed to breached, and again from breached to fully repaired.

Area

Each type of fortification occupies a number of zones based on its size and purpose, as described in Table: Fortifications under "Area Occupation". However, a fortifcation can occupy fewer zones if the commander of the side that initially owns it so chooses. When setting up on the battlefield, the commander can decide to have a fortification occupy fewer zones. The fortification's size does not change; rather, it is the commander's choice to redesignate and expand battlefield zones to match his strategy.

Table: Fortifications

Building Defense Bonus hp Area Occupation
Aerie +3 90 1 zone.
Barracks +4 30 Up to 2 by 2 zones.
Castle +16 270 Up to 4 by 3 zones.
City Stone Wall +8 40 Up to 1 by 3 zones.
City Wooden Wall +2 10 Up to 1 by 3 zones.
Fort +16 120 Up to 3 by 3 zones.
Garrison +8 60 Up to 2 by 3 zones.
Moat +1 10 Up to 1 by 3 zones.
Watchtower +2 30 1 zone.

Visibility

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In warfare, simply identifying friend from foe is not always easy, and this is especially true when some creatures have perceptual abilities far beyond those available in the real world. Creatures able to see in the dark have a great advantage in battles at night, while those sensitive to bright light avoid fighting by day if they can. The table below describes the effect of various illumination levels on general combat effectiveness on offense and defense, as well as the ability of armies to spot one another or even to move effectively. Creatures able to see normally in darkness take no penalties for fighting in it, while those sensitive to bright light take penalties in such conditions. Otherwise, all creatures present in a battle take the same penalties from poor visibility unless they have some special means of negating them.The Speed modifier below can never reduce an army’s movement below 10 feet.

Fog of War: Whenever an army takes a penalty to its OM due to poor visibility, its chance of shooting awry increases. When making a Range attack against an enemy unit engaged with an ally, the chance of dealing friendly fire damage (see Ranged Attack) is increased to 50%. In addition, even Melee attacks against an enemy unit engaged with an ally have a 25% of dealing damage as friendly fire to your allied unit. If you attack a unit that is not engaged with any other unit (including yours) using one of the following tactics, the attacking army has a 25% chance of inflicting friendly fire damage on itself due to the fog of war: Cavalry Sweep, False Retreat, Furious Charge, Feint, Overwhelming Onslaught, Pincer Maneuver, Pursuit, Skirmishers.

Table: Visibility

Visibility Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Bright Light +2
Normal Light
Dim Light -1 -2 -2 -10 ft.
Darkness -2 -4 -1 -4 -20 ft.
Smoke, light1 -1 -2 -2
Smoke, thick2 -2 -4 -4 -10 ft.
1An army that has attacked with firearms or cannon during the current Battle phase is covered in light smoke, as is an army that has been attacked with a Magical Barrage, Special Bombardment, or similar attack using fire. Light smoke can also be created by intentionally setting fires or (at the GM’s option) by repeated casting of spells like control weather, fog cloud, obscuring mist, and pyrotechnics. If spells are used, they should generally apply their effects to both sides; for specifically targeted tactical battlefield use of obscuring magic, a commander within the army should use the Magical Trickery command boon.
2An army that has attacked with multiple fire attacks (such as those described in the above footnote) may at the GM’s option be shrouded in thick smoke. A settlement with an uncontrolled fire may also be covered in thick smoke.

Terrain Battlefield Conditions

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In mass combat, the terrain itself can determine the outcome of the battle. Different types of terrain offer both advantages and disadvantages. If an army stays in a hex for at least 1 day without any enemy armies, the army commander may choose how to deploy her camp and army to take advantage of the terrain. If two opposing armies enter the same hex on the same day, then both commanders must make an opposed Leadership check. Whoever wins the check chooses how to deploy their army first.

Arctic
Arctic hexes are constantly covered in snow and ice, and maintain cold or lower temperatures. Units need to make Morale checks starting at the end of the 4th round of combat in a row to avoid being fatigued.

  • Ice:
  • Snow: Zones with thick layer of snow are considered as difficult terrain.

Cavern
Cavern terrain is any hex where teh battle is found underground. It can be composed of tunnels, open cavernous spaces, and platforms at different elevations. Hazards and obstacles can include ravines, underground bodies of water, tight spaces, and unstable ground.

  • Ravine: A ravine occupies 1 to 3 connected zones. These zones are considered to be impassable terrain unless the unit can fly or a bridge is built.
  • Tunnel:

Coastline
Battles on the coastline will have on side of the battlefield bordered by the body of water. Opposing armies may battle along the length of the coast, and units with Boats or the amphibious or swimming special abilities can use the body the water to move up and down the battlefield. If one side has no units that can traverse bodies of water, then their units can only attack enemy units in the water with ranged attacks or flying units. Alternatively, one army can force the other army to begin the battle with their backs against the coast. This would hamper them from routing from the field.

Desert
Units need to make Morale checks starting at the end of the 4th round of combat in a row to avoid being fatigued.

  • Dunes: Zones with dunes are considered to be difficult terrain due to the unstable footing.

Forest
An army in a forest hex gains a +4 bonus to their Camouflage. The trees provide enough cover and obstacles to impose Disadvantage on Ranged attacks. Units are unable to use the Cavalry Sweep or Furious Charge tactics.

Hills
Hills provide different levels of elevation throughout the battlefield, although the battlefield usually features only one hill. One to three zones of the battlefield are considered elevated terrain, and are considered to elevation levels high. The zones adjacent to the elevated terrain are one elevation level lower.

During the battle, ranged attacks from units on a higher elevation against units on a lower one gain a +2 bonus to RV, and the lower unit gains a -2 penalty to RV on attacks against the higher unit. During melee combat, a unit moving from a higher elevated zone into a lower elevated zone gains a +2 bonus to MV against an enemy unit already in the lower zone and the enemy unit gains a -2 penalty to MV on attacks against that unit until the end of the next Action phase. If a unit from a lower zone moves into a higher elevated zone and engages an enemy unit already in that zone, then the unit gains a -2 penalty to MV against the enemy unit, and the enemy unit gains a +2 bonus to MV on melee attacks against the first unit until the end of the next Action phase.

The first army to enter a hill hex gets to choose whether or not to set up their camp on a hill. If two armies enter the same hill hex at the same time, the commanders must make opposed leadership checks, and the winner gets to decide. The battlefield is then setup in relation to the first army or the winner's camp. The other army's camp is considered to be on low ground.

Jungle
An army in a jungle hex gains a +4 bonus to their Camouflage. The vegetation provide enough cover and obstacles to impose Disadvantage on Ranged attacks. Units are unable to use the Cavalry Sweep or Furious Charge tactics.

Marsh
Units on the ground without the amphibious or swimming special ability move at half speed in marsh terrain.

Mountains
3d4 zones contain mountains.

  • Mountain: Mountain zones are made up of a single "peak" zone with adjacent zones considered as "slopes". Requires leadership check to move through mountain zones to avoid casualties. Moving from in or out of a mountain zone requires both acts during the Action phase, and units become vulnerable to attacks until the start of their next Action phase. Falling causes damage. Units on higher elevation gains bonuses against units below them.
  • Ravine: Restricted space and movement within the ravine. Unable to pass over without fly speed or bridge.

Plains:
The flat, clear land of plains can make this type of terrain the most ideal battlefield for the right commander. It offers no advantages, but no disadvantages either. Armies must rely purely on their own training, equipment, and leadership to win the day.

River
For a hex to be considered as a River hex, it needs to contain both opposing banks of the body of water (otherwise it is considered as a Coastline hex). If both opposing armies enter a River hex from opposite sides of it, then the battlefield will be divided by the river in-between the two armies' Front zones. The river is equal to 1 to 3 zones depending on its size. Land units are unable to do so unless they use Boats or build a Bridge. Units that are amphibious, or are able to fly or swim, can traverse and fight in the River zone as normal. If both armies arrive in the River hex

  • Current: A calm current allows swimming units and units in boats to traverse the zone normally. Rough current reduces their speed by half. Stormy current reduces their speed by half, and deals 1d4 damage to the unit.
  • Ice: If the temperature is Severe or Extreme Cold, then the River zone is frozen over. It can be traverse by land units at half speed. Battling on ice can be dangerous. Units adjacent to the frozen River zone can make a special Melee attack break the ice under a unit inside the River zone. The ice has an effective DV of 15 and 5 hp. Ranged units with the rock throwing or any spellcasting special ability, non-firearm siege engine on land, and any siege engines in the sky can also target and destroy the ice. If the ice underneath a unit is destroyed, its leader must make a DC 20 Leadership check. If the check succeeds, her unit is defeated, but enough survivors are able to avoid falling in the freezing water, and they can later make it back to the Camp zone to reform their unit with only 1 section. If the check fails, then virtually the entire unit fall into the water, and the unit is considered to be destroyed.

Tundra
Tundra land lack any notable features except for consistent low temperatures.

Urban
Urban terrain exists when battles occur on settlements. This type of terrain is characterized by having buildings of various heights, and streets of various widths snaking between them.

Water

Army Engineering

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A unit with a leader who has the Engineering boon can build temporary hex improvements to benefit their army. The hex must either be claimed by your nation and uncontested, or a foreign hex contested by your nation. The time it takes to build these improvements is reduced by a number of days equal to twice of the engineering unit's UCR (minimum 2 hours). Army engineering improvements are designed to be built fast and temporary, and will disappear after a week unless maintained. Maintaining an army improvement requires spending only half of the improvement's cost and time, and renews the improvement's time limit. Improvement costs are modified by the Terrain Cost Modifier as listed on Table: Terrain and Terrain Improvements.

Bridge
This hastily constructed bridge allows units to cross bodies of water or crevices. When not maintained, these bridges quickly collapse under the duress of the elements. On the overland map, you normally construct a bridge in a hex with a river running through it. You can build a bridge in a hex with a coastline, but only to an adjacent hex with a coastline of the same body of water, and this counts as 2 bridges.
Effect: Army units are able to traverse the obstacle. Units gain Advantage on ranged attacks against units on a bridge.
Cost: 1 BP
Construction Time: 16 hours per hex or zone.

Fortifications
Fortifications include temporary palisades, trenches, bunkers, and other constructed obstacles or defenses. Fortifications can be built for each battle zone. Your unit gains the fortification defense bonus by being in the same battle zone with them, and using the Hold action during the Ranged Phase to occupy them. The unit loses the DV bonus when it moves to another zone. Units from an allied unit can also occupy your fortifications if you allow it. Opposing units can occupy your fortifications if they are not occupied by your or your allies' units. When not maintained, these fortifications are swept away or fall apart by the elements.

Fortifications can also be created with large-area spells such as move earth or wall of stone without requiring an engineering unit, and at half the normal cost. For these spells to have any effect, they must last at least 1 hour and affect at least a 500-foot square. The army must have at least one unit with one of the Spellcasting special abilities. Likewise, magic items such as an instant fortress can also create fortifications for an army to use in a battle for free.
Effect: +4 bonus to DV of all units occupying the fortifications.
Cost: 2 BP per zone.
Construction Time: 16 hours per zone.

Obstacles
Obstacles are designed to slow the enemy's advance. These may involve barbed wire, ditches, stakes, or traps.
Effect: Reduces the speed of units in this zone by 10 ft. The Cavalry Sweep and Furious Charge tactics cannot be used by units in this zone.
Cost: 2 BP per zone.
Construction Time: 16 hours per zone.

Roads
This hastily dug-out road allows armies to more easily traverse a hex. When not maintained, these roads are easily washed away or become unusable by the elements.
Effect: Travel time through this hex is halved.
Cost: 1 BP
Construction Time: 16 hours per hex.

Sieging Settlements

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An army of sufficient size can siege a settlement without engaging its defenders. The attacking army forms a military blockade of the settlement, preventing anyone from coming in or out. As long as the settlement is sieged, its nation no longer gains the benefit of the bonuses it provides, although its penalties and increases to Unrest continue to apply. In addition, its nation gains 1 Unrest every week the settlement is sieged. Smaller armies can attack and siege larger settlements, however the blockade is incomplete, and the settlement does not count as being sieged, remaining accessible to its nation and continues providing its benefits. The following rules also apply to terrain improvements where armies can be garrisoned, such as Forts and Watchtowers. See Table: Settlement Siege Army Size to see the minimum army size required to to completely blockade an enemy settlement.

When an army attacks a settlement, the defenders can determine if the outer edge of the settlement, which includes City Walls and Moats, is in the Front or Rear zone. The Command and Camp zones are always located within the area containing the rest of the settlement's buildings.

When a sieging unit is in a zone behind the settlement's outer edge, it can attempt to destroy a building. This is treated as attacking an enemy unit, with a building having an effective DV equal to 15 plus the building’s Defense modifier (if any) and hit points equal to its BP value. The unit can attack once per Battle phase (if a battle is still going on nearby) or four times per day (if not). A building reduced to less than half its hit points (BP value) ceases providing any benefits to the nation that owns it. A building can be repaired on its owner’s next nation turn, spending BP equal to the damage the building has taken. If the building is reduced to 0 hit points (BP value), it is destroyed.

Settlement Size: Settlements larger than a Small Town encompass an area large enough that they require two or more battles to take complete control. Large settlements contain so many buildings and streets that defenders are able to retreat to secured fallback zones to regroup against the enemy. An attacking army needs to rout, destroy, disband or force the surrender the defending army from each control zone in order to gain complete control of the settlement.

Table: Settlement Siege Army Size

Settlement Size Minimum Army Size
Thorp, Watchtower Platoon
Hamlet Reinforced Platoon
Village Company
Small Town, Fort Reinforced Company
Large Town Battalion
Small City Regiment
Large City Reinforced Regiment
Metropolis Brigade
(+1) (+Brigade)

Table: Settlement Sizes and Require Battles

Size Number of Battles Control Zones
Thorp, Hamlet, Village, Small Town 1 Town Center
Large Town, Small City 2 Town Center, Outer City
Large City 3 City Center, Inner City, Outer City
Metropolis 4 City Center, Inner City, Middle City, Outer City
(+1) Increase the number of required battles for the Inner City, Middle City, and Outer City each by 1

Settlement Supplies: When one of your settlements becomes under siege by an enemy army, determine how much BP is in the settlement and deduct that amount from your nation's treasury. The settlement's BP supply can be supplemented by any BP carried by an army inside the settlement while it is under siege. A settlement's supply BP reduces by 1 for each week that passes while the settlement is under siege. In addition, the consumption of any army garrisoned at the settlement must be paid every fortnight instead of monthly as they must remain constantly on alert. Once the settlement's BP supply reaches 0, the Morale of any defending armies reduces by 1 for each week that passes in addition to any Morale penalties due to not paying consumption. Defending armies may also pillage their own settlement for BP to pay consumption.

A sieged settlement can be resupplied by an allied army's BP supply. If the settlement is completely blockaded, the relief army mush enter battle with the sieging army. The BP is delivered to either the settlement or the defending army if at least one of the relief army's units reached the settlement's Rear zone. If the blockade is incomplete, the relief army can enter the settlement without battling the sieging army if its commander's check beats the enemy commander's Leadership check. If not, then the two army enter mass combat as previously described. If the relief army is defeated, the sieging army may claim the supplies for themselves.

An army garrisoned at a Fort or Watchtower inside your nation's territory follows the same rules as a settlement when sieged. However, if the Fort or Watchtower is outside of your nation's territory, the only BP supply the army has is whatever BP it was carrying at the time.

Flying Units: A relief army with flying units can enter and deliver supplies to a settlement (except for aquatic and cavernous settlements) without battle by dropping them from the air, unless the sieging army also has have flying units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the flying units.

To deliver the supplies safely, they must be dropped in the settlement's Camp zone. The flying unit needs to make a DC 20 ranged attack, and add the settlement's modifier to the check. Weather conditions also affect the drop's landing. Depending on the weather, add the Ranged modifier listed on Table: Weather to the range attack. It is impossible to safely deliver the supplies in hurricane or windstorm conditions. If the attack roll misses by 4 or less, then the supplies land in the settlement's Command zone. For every 5 that the attack roll misses, the supplies land in one zone further away from the settlement's Camp. If the supplies land outside the Camp zone, a defending unit in the same zone as the supplies must spend their Melee phase to pick up the supplies, and then spend their next actions moving back to the Camp zone. Until the supplies reach the Camp, it is vulnerable to attack by enemy units who can claim the supplies for their own army.

Burrowing Units: A relief army with burrowing units can enter and deliver supplies to a surface or cavernous settlement without battle by tunneling under the ground, unless the sieging army also has burrowing units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the burrowing units. If the sieging army has units with tremorsense, but none with burrow, then they are aware of the relief army's movements, but are unable to stop them.

Magic: Units capable of magical means of traveling can enter and deliver supplies without battle if they are able to target the settlement, such as using the teleport spell, unless the settlement is in an area or under an effect where such magic does not work. A teleport circle, barring exceptional circumstances, allows the siege to be incomplete and allow the settlement to be regularly supplied, unless both settlements containing either ends of the teleport circle are simultaneously sieged.

Swimming Units: A relief army with swimming units can enter and deliver supplies to a barge, causeway, or underwater settlement without battle by swimming under water, unless the sieging army also has swimming units. If it does, then the relief army's attempt to resupply is resolved as normal, but only involving the swimming units.

Restocking: Once a settlement is no longer under siege by enemy armies, it replenishes its supplies at a rate of 1 BP per month. The nation's Councilor may use their leadership action to supply the settlement with additional BP during the nation's Decision phase. If the settlement is attacked before its supplies reach its limit, then its supplies decrease starting at its current amount.

More Than Two Armies

In rare cases, armies from three or more separate sides may enter the same battle. Even in these cases, the Mass Combat rules remain the same with the following considerations:

  • Each army commander make their leadership initiative roll as normal to determine in what order each army acts.
  • Units in their own Front zone can move into any enemy army's Front zone. From there, they can move deeper into that enemy's zones. If they want to move to second enemy army's zones, they must go back to their own Front zone, and then move into the second enemy's Front zone.

Armies from allied sides can merge together to form one larger army for a battle. The army commanders must agree on one of them to be the formal army commander of all allied units, and the remaining army commander become leaders of their own unit. This action is usually taken if one army commander has superior skills that all of the allied units would benefit from, or if the other commanders cannot be trusted to lead their own units well enough.

Allied armies can remain separate, with each army having their own zones and following the above considerations of traveling into each other's zones; the allied armies are merely attacking the enemy armies and not each other. This action is usually taken when each commander is confident that the other can lead their army to victory. However, unless they have the means to communicate with each other instantly (such as with certain spells or powers), they cannot coordinate with each other in real time; they are only able to send one-way messages to each allied commander once per Tactical phase of the battle.

Building Armies


Recruiting an Army

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Unit Recruitment Sequence

  1. Decision Phase—Recruiting for an army unit is a lengthy and costly affair. During your nation's Decision phase, your General may use "Recruit Army Unit" leadership action. The General selects a settlement to recruit in, and makes a Loyalty check, adding the nation's Infamy modifier and an additional bonus equal to the number of BP he spends on recruitment. At the start of your nation's next Decision phase, the General recruits up to 5 recruits per BP spent, plus an additional 10 per Watchtower, 25 soldiers per Barracks, 50 soldiers per Castle or Garrison, and 100 soldiers per Fort in the settlement. If the General rolls a natural 20 on his Loyalty check, the maximum number of recruits is doubled. A failed check means that only half the number of recruits arrive (or none, if the check is a natural 1). These recruits are CR 1 or lower creatures who are either Fighters or Warriors, and their race can be selected from demographic groups of your nation's population. You are able to recruit creatures of a different class if you have the prerequisite buildings in your settlements.
    • Elites: Rather than ordinary soldiers, you can recruit elites who are CR 2 creatures or higher, assuming the prerequisite buildings are available in the settlement where the unit is being recruited or they are part of your nation's population; however, each check brings only 1/4 the normal number of soldiers. Higher level soldiers or monster races can be recruited with the BP cost equaling the creature's CR squared (CR 2 recruits cost 4 BP, CR 3 recruits cost 9 BP, and so on).
    • Leadership and Followers: A General with the Leadership feat can recruit his followers without needing to make a Loyalty check or paying BP. They may recruit a number of followers up to their total number of followers, and they can be formed into army units at the start of the nation's next Decision phase, skipping the "Recruit Phase" and "Training Phase" of the recruitment sequence.
  2. Recruit Phase—The people recruited appear at the beginning the next Decision Phase, but are considered as recruits and not yet a unit. The nation’s Consumption increases by 1 for every 100 recruits (minimum 1) it supports, and recruits count against the nation’s Manpower limit. In addition, the settlement must have enough military buildings to garrison the recruits. Recruits that will not be used as reinforcements to an existing army or used to form a new unit can be kept at the improvement where they were recruited in anticipation of adding further recruits in the future, or they can be sent home to avoid paying Consumption or to decrease the nation’s Manpower load.
  3. Training Phase—Once a sufficient number of recruits has been gathered, the General must use the "Train Army Unit" leadership action during his Decision phase to form them into one or more units, spending a number of BP equal to the UCR of each unit. The new unit's UCR is equal to the base soldier CR plus the unit's size modifier based on the number of soldiers in the unit (see Table: Army Unit Sizes). At this point, the unit will train until the start of the next Decision phase, at which point another Loyalty check is required with a penalty equal to the new unit’s UCR. If the check succeeds, the unit is ready for duty. If it fails, the unit’s training is incomplete; it must wait until the start of the next Decision phase to attempt another Loyalty check (with a cumulative +2 bonus for each check after the first), spending BP equal to its UCR each month. Once the Loyalty check is successful, the unit is ready for deployment. A new unit know no tactics except for Full Defense, Furious Charge, and Standard tactics.
    • Equipping Resources: After performing the "Train Army Unit" action, the General can immediately perform the "Equip Army Unit" action on the new unit-in-training. The unit-in-training will acquire these resources at the start of the next Decision Phase.
  4. Assign Unit Leader—Once the unit is trained, assign its leader. If no character is assigned, the default leader is one of the unit's soldiers with no boons, and uses the statistics of the unit's soldiers to determine LB. Give that leader a name for tracking purposes and to assign boons if they succeed in learning them.
  5. Reinforcements—Any unit ready for deployment can be added to an existing army. If the army is garrisoned in the same settlement as the new unit, then it can be immediately added. Otherwise, either the new unit or the army will need to travel and meet up with each other in the same hex, where the new unit is immediately added to the army. Two units of the same creatures, class, level, and resources may merge into a larger unit.

Recruiting Mercenaries

Rather than conscripting or recruiting its own citizens to fight, a nation can hire foreign mercenaries to fight its battles on its behalf. Mercenary armies come ready-trained and usually have their own equipment, though smaller mercenary bands may be seeking employment in the hope of making enough money to truly establish themselves. The BP cost of recruiting a mercenary army is reduced by half compared to recruiting a citizen army, and mercenary armies do not count against the nation’s Manpower limit. However, mercenaries demand to be paid in cash for the duration of their employment. A typical fee is 100 gol times the army’s ACR every week; this fee is in addition to the nation paying the BP cost for their Consumption.

Mercenaries can be recruited unequipped, arming as the nation wishes and at their expense. They may also be hired with their own equipment, but in which case they will charge a fee of 100 gol times the BP value of their equipment each month (each year if a garrisoned army). Healing potions for a mercenary army must be bought with BP.

Recruiting a mercenary army functions much like recruiting a normal army; however, the nation also must make an Economy check against the same DC any time it makes a Loyalty check as part of the recruitment process.

Equipping Your Army

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Your army starts out with simple melee weapons and light armor. You can, however, improve them up by buying additional resources for them when they are created. The noted extra buildings are required in the city where the army is created. All costs are for equipping a Medium army. Multiply the cost and Consumption increases by the unit size Resource Scaling multiplier for smaller or larger units. If the adjusted cost is less than 1 BP, buy the resource individually with gold pieces. However, modifiers to MV, RV, and DV are multiplied by the unit's size modifier (minimum +1 bonus or -1 penalty; see Table: Army Unit Sizes).

Weapons and armor made of special materials (such as adamantine, aetherium, or cold iron) are almost impossible to acquire in mass quantities to outfit an army, and can only be purchased and equipped on an individual basis. Units with weapons made of special materials are considered to be equipped with the Superior Weapons resource, and provide the benefit of overcoming the damage reduction of an opposing army specific to that material. Certain special materials provide additional benefits (see below).

  • Alchemical Creation: When making a Melee attack, units with alchemical creations can expend the resource to treat the damage dealt as either being adamantine, acid, cold, cold iron, fire, ghost salt, or silver. Alternatively, the target unit can suffer -1 penalty to OM or a -10 ft. penalty to movement speed until the start of the next Action phase. Once used, this resource must be replaced before being usable again. The alchemical creation resource can be purchased multiple times for a unit.
  • Armor: Units are equipped with light armor by default.
    • Adamantine: Adamantine increases the armor resources bonus to DV by 2.
    • Aetherium: A unit equipped with aetherium armor ignores the Speed penalty from Medium and Heavy armor. Exclusive with Medium armor.
    • Heavy:The unit is equipped with heavy armor, such as banded mail and full plate.
    • Magic: The unit's armor is magically enhanced.
    • Medium: The unit is equipped with medium armor, such as breastplate and chainmail. Exclusive with Heavy armor.
  • Boats: These small craft are collapsible and designed to be assembled quickly. They allow a unit to traverse a body of water in small groups.
  • Chariot: These wheeled conveyances are driven into combat, drawn by war-trained beasts of burden and bearing one or more warriors into battle. Its cost and speed depends on the mount chosen to pull the chariot.
    • Heavy: These combat vehicles are stout and sturdy, drawn by a team of two heavy or four light mounts. Heavy chariots are usually armor-plated to give cover to a pair of armed passengers. The chariots themselves are typically spiked and bladed for scything through enemy formations.
    • Light: These combat vehicles are lightweight and fast, each drawn by a single heavy mount or a pair of light mounts, usually with a single driver and a bow-armed rider. Bladed hubs cut a bloody path though creatures approaching a moving chariot’s flanks.
  • Cold Gear: Cold gear includes warm clothing, sturdier shelters, fuel and items to produce heat, and helps to reduce the effects of colder temperatures.
  • Firearms: The unit is equipped with firearms, and is considered to have the Ranged Weapons resource. Firearms with a range increment of 60 ft. or less have a range of 1 zone instead of 2.
    • Complex: The unit is equipped with complex firearms such as rifles.
    • Simple: The unit is equipped with simple firearms such as muskets.
  • Hot Weather Gear: Hot weather gear includes well ventilated clothing, cooling shelters, ointments to cool skin, and additional supplies of water.
  • Howdah: Howdahs are special saddles and battle platforms used by smaller creatures to ride much larger creatures as mounts. The mounts must be at least two size categories larger than the riders. The base unit is considered to be the mount on which the howdahs are mounted, and its CR is used to determine the UCR of the army in Melee situations. A unit with howdahs can make ranged attacks; however, the larger and generally much stronger creature bearing the howdah is not the creature making those ranged attacks, so its base CR is not used to determined the howdah army’s RV (unless the base creature is a dragon, manticore, or similar creature with its own powerful ranged attack). Instead, its RV is based on the CR of the creatures riding in the howdah, which is treated for this purpose (and for the purpose of recruiting, manpower, and effects on the nation if these soldiers are killed) as a separate army of smaller creatures. It does not have its own separate Consumption, nor does it count against the nation’s Command Limit. If the mount army is defeated, destroyed, disbanded, or routed, the rider army suffers the same fate.
    • Grand: Grand howdahs are mounted on creatures three size categories larger than the howdah’s riders. A grand howdah carries 10 soldiers, so its RV is determined as an army three size categories larger than the mount army.
    • Light: Light howdahs are mounted on creatures two size categories larger than the howdah’s riders (such as humans and elephants). A light howdah carries 4-5 soldiers, so the RV of the howdah army is determined as an army two size categories larger than the mount army.
  • Mounts: The unit is mounted on horses or other war-trained animals. The unit's Speed is equal to the mount's movement speed. If your unit uses mounts that are more powerful than the units themselves, your unit's UCR and derived scores might increase (see UCR).
    • Heavy: The unit's mounts are equipped with armored barding.
    • Light: The unit's mounts have no additional protection other than their natural armor.
  • Potions, Healing: Units with healing potions can use the Magical Healing command boon on themselves on a one-time basis. Unlike most equipment, training time is not required to use healing potions. Once used, they must be replaced before being usable again. The healing potion resource can be purchased more than once for a unit.
  • Potions, Magic: At the start of the Action phase, units with magic potions can choose any one of the following effects that they can use as a single use special ability that lasts for the duration of the Action phase: elemental resistance 10 (choose one type of energy), magic weapons, aligned weapons (overcome superior damage reduction), climb (Speed 1), defense (+2 DV), flight (Speed 5), invisibility (+4 Morale check to disengage, +2 Camouflage). Once used, they must be replaced before being usable again. The magic potion resource can be purchased more than once for a unit.
  • Shields: The unit is equipped with shields.
    • Adamantine: Adamantine increases the shield resource's bonus to DV by 2.
    • Magic: The unit's shield resource is magically enhanced.
  • Weapons: When a unit is created, it is automatically equipped with non-reach simple melee weapons.
    • Adamantine: This resource applies either to melee or ranged weapons. Stacks with the Magic. Exclusive with Aetherium and Superior.
    • Aetherium: This resource applies either to melee or ranged weapons. Stacks with the Magic Exclusive with Adamantine and Superior.
    • Magic: This resource benefit applies either to melee or ranged weapons. It overlaps and does not stack with superior weapons (and can be upgraded from superior weapons).
    • Ranged: The unit is equipped with ranged weapons (such as crossbows, slings, or bows), and may make ranged attacks (see RV). Weapons with a range increment of 60 ft. or less have a range of 1 zone instead of 2.
    • Reach: The unit is equipped with reach weapons such as longspears, glaives, and other polearms. Reach weapons provide a DV bonus that applies only against units with mounts or units that are not already engaged with you. A unit with both the Magic Melee Weapons and Reach Weapons resources adds the Magic Melee Weapons MV bonus also to the Reach Weapons DV bonus.
    • Superior: This resource benefit applies either to melee or ranged weapons. It is overlapped by and does not stack with magic weapons, but it can be upgraded to them. Exclusive with Adamantine and Aetherium.

Table: Army Resources

Resource Cost MV RV DV Consumption Speed Requirement
Alchemical Creation 2 BP Alchemist
Armor, Adamantine +2*
Armor, Aetherium +10 ft.*
Armor, Heavy 5 BP +2 -10 ft. Smith, Tannery
Armor, Magic 25 BP +11 Caster's Tower, Magic Academy, or Magic Shop, and Smith or Tannery
Armor, Medium 1 BP +1 -10 ft. Smith, Tannery
Boats 1 BP Trade Shop
Chariots, Heavy mount's CR + 9 +2 +2 mount's CR2 (as mount - 10 ft) x 2 Smith, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Chariots, Light mount's CR + 3 +1 +1 mount's CR2 as mount x 2 Smith, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Cold Gear 2 BP +1 Alchemist, Trade Shop
Firearms, Complex Long 40 BP +3 2 Alchemist, Foundry, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Firearms, Complex Short 20 BP +3 2 Alchemist, Foundry, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Firearms, Simple Long 16 BP +1 2 Alchemist, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Firearms, Simple Short 8 BP +1 2 Alchemist, Exotic Artisan, Smith
Hot Weather Gear 2 BP +1 Alchemist, Trade Shop
Howdahs, Grand mount's CR + 14 +1 +2 mount's CR2 as mount - 10 ft. Exotic Artisan, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Howdahs, Light mount's CR + 6 +0 +1 mount's CR2 as mount Exotic Artisan, Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Mounts, Heavy mount's CR + 4 +2 mount's CR/2 as mount - 10 ft. Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Mounts, Light mount's CR +1 mount's CR/2 as mount Stable (and Aerie for flying mounts)
Potions, Healing 4 BP Alchemist or Temple
Potions, Magic 8 BP Alchemist, Caster's Tower, Magic Academy, Magic Shop, Sacred Grove, or Temple
Shields 1 BP +1 Smith or Tannery
Shields, Adamantine +2*
Shields, Magic 25 BP +11 Caster's Tower, Magic Academy, or Magic Shop, Smith or Tannery
Weapons, Adamantine Melee* +2
Weapons, Adamantine Ranged* +2
Weapons, Aetherium Melee* +1
Weapons, Aetherium Ranged* +1
Weapons, Magic Melee 24 BP +2 Caster's Tower, Magic Academy, or Magic Shop, Smith
Weapons, Magic Ranged 24 BP +2 Caster's Tower, Magic Academy, or Magic Shop, Smith
Weapons, Ranged Long 2 BP +0 2
Weapons, Ranged Short 1 BP +0 2
Weapons, Reach 1 BP +1
Weapons, Superior Melee 2 BP +1 Smith
Weapons, Superior Ranged 2 BP +1 Smith
* See description.
1 The DV bonus for magic armor can be applied to ordinary armor but also stacks with Medium and Heavy Armor. The bonus for Magic Shields also stacks but requires Shields.
2 A unit with Ranged Weapons increases its Consumption by 1 (1d4 for Early Firearms, Light Firearm Siege Weapon or Heavy Siege Weapons, and 2d4 for Advanced Firearms or Heavy Firearm Siege Weapon) for each battle it participated in during the week. Multiply total by the unit size resource scaling.

Siege Engines

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Siege engines are special in that each singular siege engine is considered to be its own unit. They are purchased individually, and come with their own crew and ammunition (if needed). Siege engines typically have to be assembled at the battlefield, but there are some smaller or lighter engines that can be transported with mounts (the Mounts resource must be purchased separately). Siege engines can move through the battlefield at a movement speed of half of its crew, or that of its mounts if that resource has been purchased.

Offensive siege engines inflict damage differently than units. Siege unit damage against fortifications are not reduced by the the fortification's DV. Siege units that can attack soldiers doubles the number of Casualties they inflict on such units.

Engine Crew: Each siege engine comes with its own crew to operate and maintain it, and determines the siege engine's LB. The LB is calculated by adding together half of the crew's CR and a quarter of their Knowledge (engineering) modifier. If a unique unit leader is assigned to lead the crew, she substitutes Profession (soldier) with either Knowledge (engineering) or Profession (engineer) (choose highest of the two) when calculating her LB.

Close Assault Siege Engines: Close assault engines can only target fortifications and units within the same zone.

Direct Fire Siege Engines: Direct fire engines require a clear line of fire towards its target.

Indirect Fire Siege Engines: Indirect fire engines fire projectiles at an upward arc, allowing them to go over units and fortifications to hit targets further behind them.

UCR: Each siege engine has its own UCR value. The value listed is the base UCR of the engine with a CR 1 crew.

Cost: The base cost of a siege engine includes its crew at 1st-level and ammunition (if any). The cost increases by 1 BP for every crew level above the 1st.

Consumption: Siege engine consumption equals half of its UCR, and includes the pay and food for the crew, replacement parts, and the transportation costs. Siege engines with ammunition increase their next Consumption payment for each battle they attacked in since their last Consumption payment: 1 for Light Ranged, 1d4 for Heavy Ranged and Light Firearm, and 2d4 for Heavy Firearm.

Type: Close assault siege engines add its UCR to either MV or DV depending on its function. Direct and indirect siege engines always add its UCR to RV. The other attributes are 0.

Setup: How many battle rounds/hours are needed to assemble the siege engine; disassembling the siege engine takes half the time (minimum 0). When deploying units at the start of the battle, the army commander can determine which zone to begin assembling an engine. While assembling, the siege unit is considered as a viable target as any other unit, but cannot act during the Action phase; they can still choose tactics and make checks in the Casualties and Rout phases. Other units can protect the siege unit with the Screening Defense tactic. Engines listed as "Mobile" can be transported along with the army if the Mounts resource is purchased for it, and are ready to deploy onto the battlefield at the start of the battle.

Retreating Siege Engines: A siege engine with a mobile setup can retreat as normal, but one with 1 or more hours of setup time only allows its crew to retreat, abandoning the siege engine. A retreating siege crew that safely returns to its nation can be immediately assigned to an available siege engine of the same type. An abandoned siege engine can be captured by the opposing army. If the leader of the unit capturing the engine has ranks in Knowledge (engineering) or Profession (engineer), they can immediately take control of it and use it in battle, though they gain disadvantage on offensive checks.

Table: Close Assault Siege Engines

Siege Engine UCR Cost Type Setup Resource Scaling Special
Assault bridge 1 1 BP DV 1 x 2 Allows up to 25 soldiers to cross a ditch or moat fortification per round with penalties.1
Assault bridge, huge 2 2 BP DV 2 x 4 Allows up to 50 soldiers to cross a ditch or moat fortification per round with penalties.1
Assault bridge, gargantuan 3 4 BP DV 2 x 8 Allows up to 100 soldiers to cross one zone of canyon or water hazard per round with penalties.1
Assault bridge, Colossal 4 8 BP DV 3 x 16 Allows up to 200 soldiers to cross one zone of canyon or water hazard per round with penalties.1
Crushing wheel 3 1 BP MV Mobile x 2
Earthmaul 5 3 BP MV Mobile x 2
Escalade ladder 1 1 BP DV 0 x 2 Allows up to 25 soldiers to climb up cliffside, a wall or tower fortification per round with penalties.1
Escalade ladder, huge 2 2 BP DV 1 x 4 Allows up to 50 soldiers to climb up cliffside, a wall or tower fortification per round with penalties.1
Escalade ladder, gargantuan 3 3 BP DV 2 x 8 Allows up to 100 soldiers to climb up cliffside, a wall or tower fortification per round with penalties.1
Escalade ladder, colossal 4 4 BP DV 3 x 16 Allows up to 200 soldiers to climb up cliffside, a wall or tower fortification per round with penalties.1
Gallery 2 1 BP DV 1 x 2 Provides cover for up to 10 soldiers with penalties.1
Gallery, huge 3 2 BP DV 2 x 4 Provides cover for up to 25 soldiers with penalties.1
Gallery, gargantuan 4 4 BP DV 3 x 8 Provides cover for up to 50 soldiers with penalties.1
Gallery, colossal 6 6 BP DV 4 x 16 Provides cover for up to 100 soldiers with penalties.1
Harvester 4 2 BP MV Mobile x 2
Ram 1 1 BP MV 1 x 2 Can be attached to a gallery.
Ram, huge 2 2 BP MV 2 x 4 Can be attached to a huge gallery.
Ram, gargantuan 4 3 BP MV 3 x 8 Can be attached to a gargantuan gallery.
Ram, colossal 6 4 BP MV 4 x 16 Can be attached to a colossal gallery.
Siege Tower 2 3 BP DV 1 x 4 Can transport up to 25 soldiers.1
Siege Tower, huge 4 6 BP DV 2 x 8 Can transport up to 50 soldiers.1
Siege Tower, gargantuan 6 9 BP DV 3 x 16 Can transport up to 100 soldiers.1
Siege Tower, colossal 8 12 BP DV 4 x 32 Can transport up to 200 soldiers.1
1Assume Medium-size creatures. Divide number by 2 for every size category larger, and double the number for every size category smaller.

Assault Bridge: This is a sturdy but lightweight wooden framework, ranging from simple planking to more elaborate versions with folding supports, iron hooks, and rope railings, which is used to quickly span a gap that troops are otherwise unable to cross. After a siege unit spends required number of turns deploying an assault bridge in a zone, ground units of the appropriate size and siege units of the same size can move through the zone. However, while in the zone, units gain a -2 penalty to DV (multiplied by the unit's size modifier) and a -10 ft. penalty to movement speed due to a lack of space to maneuver. Aside from the original assault bridge unit, only one unit up to the assault bridge's capacity can be present in its zone.

Crushing Wheel: The bulk of this weapon is a steel roller many feet wide. Handles or a harness project from the axle, allowing its crew or mounts to push the crushing wheel from behind.

Earthmaul: This war machine is fitted with an enormous hammer. When dropped into the horizontal position, it functions like a sideways-mounted catapult, and is capable of clearing wide swaths of enemies. Although it doesn’t use ammunition, the earthmaul must effectively be reloaded by winding the torsion.

Escalade Ladder: These ladders may be simple wooden affairs or grapples with knotted ropes attached, while the largest are carefully engineered and counterweighted levered mechanisms topped with hooked stanchions to cling onto battlements. Whatever their design, ladders are required to allow ground units in the same zone to use the Escalade tactic.

Gallery: This is a semi-mobile wooden frame clad in hides or planks to provide cover to soldiers underneath, adding its DV to that unit. Alternatively, a ram siege unit and its crew can shelter under a gallery, providing protection while they attack the walls. A gallery can provide cover to either a ram or a unit of soldiers, but not both.

Harvester: A variety of scythe-like blades extend from two sides of this wheeled machine. When it’s pulled, the wheels’ rotation causes the blades to slash indiscriminately.

Ram: These heavy tree trunks, sometimes carried by strong warriors but often mounted on swinging ropes or chains mounted under mobile galleries, are used to make melee attacks against fortifications. They cannot attack other units. Special: A ram can be mounted on a galley and used to attack other ships or aquatic units that are comprised of Huge or larger creatures.

Siege Tower: These advanced galleries have a lower compartment where the crew moves the towers, and an upper structure of covered ladders and shooting platforms to transport another unit. A unit traveling in a siege tower unit can make ranged attacks, though it takes a -1 penalty to its RV. It cannot make melee attacks, however, except when using the Escalade tactic. If a siege tower is destroyed, it collapses dealing 2d6 points of damage to the crew and any unit inside it.

Table: Direct Fire Siege Weapons

Light Ranged UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Ballista, light 3 1 BP 2 Mobile x 2
Heavy Ranged UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Ballista, gate breaker 8 3 BP 2 2 x 8 Double damage against fortifications.
Ballista, heavy 6 2 BP 3 1 x 4
Light Firearm UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Cannon, light 10 12 BP 3 1 x 2
Firedrake 8 6 BP 1 1 x 2 Double damage against wooden fortifications, no damage against stone fortifications.
Heavy Firearm UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Cannon, heavy 20 24 BP 4 2 x 4
Firewyrm 16 12 BP 2 2 x 4 Double damage against wooden fortifications, no damage against stone fortifications.

Ballista: Resembling a massive crossbow, a ballista’s power is provided by twisted skeins of animal sinew used as torsion springs driving a pair of adjustable arms. A cord attached to both arms is winched back and a projectile is loaded into a grooved slider for release. Ballistae are direct-fire weapons.

  • Light: This common type of ballista, also called an arbalest or scorpion, maneuverable, and often mounted atop towers or even vehicles.
  • Heavy: These larger-sized siege engines are commonly used as castle defenses, as well as on large warships.
  • Gate Breaker: This massive ballista fires specially weighted quarrels with blunt metal tips. These are used as long-range battering rams, shot at walls or the gates of castles.

Cannon: Cannons are siege weapons made of metal, some cast in one piece like long, narrow bells, while others are built like bundles of metallic staves welded together and reinforced with iron bands. Cannons use black or blast powderto fire its projectiles, usually made of metal as well, with devastating force.

Firedrake: This apparatus contains a large reservoir tank and a series of pumps and conduits that unleashes a gout of alchemist’s fire at close range. Firedrakes are direct fire weapons.

Firewyrm: A firewyrm is simply a larger and more powerful version of the firedrake, with larger-flow conduits and pressurized relesae apertures that grant it a much greater range.

Table: Indirect Fire Siege Weapons

Light Ranged UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Catapult, light 5 2 BP 2 Mobile x 2
Springal, arrow 8 3 BP 2 Mobile x 2 Does no damage to fortifications.
Trebuchet, light 6 3 BP 3 1 x 4
Heavy Ranged UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Catapult, heavy 7 4 BP 4 2 x 8
Catapult, standard 6 3 BP 3 1 x 4
Trebuchet, heavy 8 7 BP 4 5 x 16
Trebuchet, standard 7 5 BP 4 2 x 8
Light Firearm UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Bombard, light 8 12 BP 4 1 x 2
Fireworks 0 1 BP 2 Mobile x 2
Springal, rocket 10 12 BP 3 Mobile x 4 Does no damage to fortifications.
Heavy Firearm UCR Cost Range Setup Resource Scaling Special
Bombard, heavy 16 24 BP 6 3 x 8
Bombard, standard 12 18 BP 5 2 x 4

Bombard: A bombard is a thick-walled cannon, usually short in length but wide in bore. Also called a mortar, a bombard is designed to launch its projectiles over walls and obstructions and cannot be used for direct fire attacks, though it can launch both solid shot and scatter shot.

Catapult: A catapult is a stone-throwing weapon powered by winched arms run through torsion skeins, either single-armed like the onager or doublearmed tension-torsion hybrids like the mangonel, holding their payload in a sling or cup that swings up and over the top of the weapon when released. Catapults are capable of hurling solid shot to attack hardened targets, scatter shot to pelt enemy armies with a rain of death, or even exotic and unusual payloads to spread fire, disease, and terror upon their enemies. Small catapults, called onagers, can be used on the decks of ships or in small fortifications, and are highly mobile (though the primitive sling-armed lithobolos is an immobile light catapult able to throw only solid shot) while their larger standard and heavy cousins, called mangonels, use two vertical skeins with a pair of torsion bow arms harnessed to the mangonel’s throwing arm for greater power.

Fireworks: These alchemical skyrockets, smoke pots, and other incendiaries do not deal direct damage to enemy armies, but they can be used to perform a special bombardment (incendiaries or smoke) or in conjunction with the Battlefield Illumination or Smoke Screen command boons.

Springal: A springal, also calleda manticore's tail, uses a torsion-cranked composite paddle to strike a firing rack containing multiple bolts, which rain down in an arc over a burst area were they fall in a deadly hail of steel. A springal cannot target specific creatures but always affects an area. A rocket springal uses powder-fueled rockets to launch its bolts rather than a torsion paddle.

Trebuchet: Trebuchets are siege weapons based on counterweight principles. Their appearance is similar to a catapult’s, with the payload to be launched being placed into a sling, cup, or basket at one end of a long lever. The counterweight is then dropped close to the fulcrum (often with crew or draft animals pulling attached ropes, especially for heavy trebuchets), with the resulting leverage enabling a trebuchet to hurl massive projectiles. Trebuchets are too bulky to mount and move and must be assembled in place on the battlefield.

Special Ammunition

TBD

Combining and Splitting Armies

Multiple armies can instantly merge into a larger army by combining their units together. This can be done instantly as long as the armies are in the same hex with each other. A single army commander must be selected as the commander of the new army, and the reamaining army commanders become leaders of their own units.

An army can split into smaller armies by splitting off its units. These units become their own armies, either together or on their own. One of the leaders of the units is selected as the new army's commander.

Like an army, a unit can be split into smaller units of the same creature type, class, level, and resources. The original unit leader remains in command of one of the new units, while another leader must be selected for the other units. If no one is selected, the unit leader is selected from the troops with the same attributes and statistics as the rest of the soldiers.

On the March


Scouting and Camouflage

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"All warfare is based on deception."
–Sun Tzu, The Art of War

In most cases, armies travel in the open, with little effort at stealth. As a result, detection of enemy armies is considered to be automatic for any enemy armies that are in the same hex. However, armies can bivouac under cover to hide their presence, and by moving at half speed they can remain largely out of sight. Note that if an army would already be moving at only 1 hex per day, it must use a forced march (see Forced March) to continue moving at 1 hex per day while using camouflage.

An army that detects another army, either through scouting or being in the same hex, learns the other army's number of soldiers, creature composition of its units, and which adjacent hex they are heading towards if they are moving.

Scout Check: To scout for enemy armies, the army commander can assign one of his units to scout hexes. The scouting unit's leader substitutes Profession (soldier) with Knowledge (geography) to determine a special Leadership Bonus for scout checks known as LB (scout). The area scouted is centered on the army. A Scout check is made when a unit is assigned to scout or when the army moves into a hex. As long as the same unit continues to scout, the army commander's knowledge of the scouted area is updated every two hours. The commander can order the scout unit to perform a new Scout check at any time. If no unit is assigned to scout, the army can only scout the hex it is in, and the Scout check uses the army commander's LB (scout).

Scouting Modifier: A unit's Scouting modifier is equal to the scouting unit's Perception modifier divided by 4, plus the LB (scout) of its leader. To notice another moving army that is using camouflage, an army rolls 1d20 and adds its Scouting modifier against a DC equal to the enemy army’s base Camouflage score.

Scouting Modifier = (scouting unit's Perception modifier / 4) + (unit leader's Knowledge (geography) modifier / 5) + (unit leader's Int, Wis, or Cha modifier) + (unit leader's Leadership score / 10) + (unit leader's BAB / 5)

One of the army's units can be devoted to scouting a number of hexes away from the army depending on its size. Scouting units allow the army commander to know the position of any other army within the scouts' range. If the other army is using camouflage, then the unit's leader must make the Scout check to detect the other army. Aside from using camouflage, an army may also avoid detection by eliminating the opposing army's scouts. The army commander must make an LB check against the scout leader's Scout check. If the commander's check beats the Scout check, then the scouts in the army's hex are killed, and the scout unit takes 1 damage. If the commander's check exceeds the scout leader's check by 5 or more, the army remains undetected; otherwise the scouts are still killed, but the scout leader immediately learns of their loss. The army is detected if the scout leader's check beats the commander's check. When either army moves to another hex, the army commander must make another opposed LB check against the scout leader to eliminate the new set of scouts in the hex.

While a unit is scouting, it cannot be deployed on the battlefield during mass combat until it has been recalled. The larger the scouting unit is, the more area it can cover (see Table: Unit Size and Scout Range). The time a scouting unit takes to be fully deployed depends on the unit's speed and the terrain, as determined in Table: Travel Time (1 hex) in the House Rules: Exploration & Movement section. When a scouting unit is recalled, the time it takes to regroup back at the army is increased by half, as time is needed to spread the word of the recall. If the area being scouted has more than one terrain type, then use the terrain with the slowest speed to calculate how much time it takes to deploy and recall the unit. If a scouting unit is recalled and reformed in the middle of a mass combat encounter, they appear in their army's Command Zone.

A garrisoned army can also deploy one of its units to scout the area around the settlement or base. Even though the unit is deployed for scouting duties, it is still considered garrisoned at the base and its Consumption is still paid monthly.

Table: Unit Size and Scout Range

Designation Number of Soldiers Hexes Scouted Camouflage
Solo 1 11 +8
Squad 10 21 +6
Platoon 25 1 hex radius +4
Reinforced Platoon 50 1 hex radius +2
Company 100 2 hex radius +0
Reinforced Company 200 2 hex radius -2
Battalion 500 3 hex radius -5
Reinforced Battalion 1,000 3 hex radius -10
Regiment 2,000 4 hex radius -20
Reinforced Regiment 4,000 4 hex radius -40
Brigade 8,000 5 hex radius -80
Reinforced Brigade 16,000 5 hex radius -160
Division 32,000 6 hex radius -320
Corps 64,000 6 hex radius -640
(x2) (+1 hex radius) (x2)
1 The army commander selects which hexes adjacent to her army to scout. She may change these hexes every two hours.

Camouflage: An army’s ability to evade notice by other armies is reflected in its Camouflage score. The Camouflage score is equal to 10 plus the lowest Bluff, Disguise, or Stealth modifier (select the highest of the three) of the creatures comprising the army divided by 4, adding the leader’s LB (scout), and applying the Camouflage modifier noted in Table: Army Size. If a unit has Mounts, it uses the worse modifier of the riders or mounts. Since the size of an individual creature is already reflected in its Stealth score, it is not separately applied as a modifier to a unit’s Camouflage score. If no skill modifier is listed for a creature in its Bestiary entry, that modifier is equal to the creature’s Dexterity or Charisma modifier, modified for its armor and by -4 per size category larger than Medium, +4 per size category smaller than Medium. The terrain the army is hiding in may also provide a bonus to their Camouflage (see Terrain Battlefield Conditions).

When two armies enter adjacent hexes, each makes a Scouting check with a -5 penalty. If both succeed, both are aware of the other. If neither succeeds, neither is aware of the other, and the two armies may continue moving and could blunder into one another. If one army succeeds and the other fails, it can set an ambush for the other, lying in wait until the enemy army moves into its hex.

Ambushes: When one army is aware of another but has not been noticed itself, it is in position for an ambush. An army waiting in ambush gains a +5 bonus to its Camouflage score against an army that has already failed once to notice it. If the enemy army enters its hex, it can trigger the ambush. The ambushing army commander can choose where to deploy her battle zones to take advantage of terrain features, and can deploy its units in any of their own zone plus the enemy's Front zone.

At the start of the battle, both army commanders make an opposed Leadership check. If the ambushing commander's check is higher, then the ambushing units can be deployed in any of their zones or the enemy's Front zone, and all of the enemy army's units are considered to be in their Front zone. If not, then the enemy commander was able to react quickly to the ambush, and deploy units as normal. Regardless of the result of the Leadership check, for the duration of the ambush, the attacker gains the benefit of the Advanced Tactics command boon (gaining an additional +2 bonus to OM if it already has that boon). During this ambush round, the enemy army is unable to act during any battle phase except for the Rout phase. If the enemy army survives and does not rout, the battle proceeds to the Tactics phase and initiative is rolled normally.

If the enemy army fails to enter its hex, the ambushing army can hold its position and wait for the enemy army to spring the trap, or it can move to an adjacent hex and reset the ambush. Having to shift its position makes it easier to be discovered, and an ambushing army gains only a +2 bonus to Camouflage if it has to move.

If more than two armies (one on each side) are present, then usually all armies on one side of the battle must remain undetected in order for the ambush to be fully effective. At the GM’s option, however, it is possible for one or more armies to remain hidden while some of their allied armies engage in battle in the open. At the beginning of every Rout phase that occurs, however, all enemy armies present can make a Scouting check to notice these armies hiding in preparation to ambush. Hidden armies gain a +2 bonus to their Camouflage score as long as they remain stationary; they get no bonus to Camouflage if they had to move from their original position to reset their ambush. If any unit is detected, enemy armies sound an alarm and their opportunity for ambush is lost. Armies that are undetected cannot be attacked by the enemy. When they launch their ambush, it occurs after all other attacks have been resolved, immediately before the Rout phase.

Buildings: Certain terrain and settlement improvements automatically provide scouting over a range of hexes. The building and scouted area must be in hexes claimed by your nation. For example, a Watchtower on the border of your nation only scouts hexes in your nation, and not those beyond your border. However, an army garrisoned at that Watchtower can be ordered to scout hexes beyond your nation's borders, though that may cause a diplomatic incident if you are sending your troops into another nation's territory. Improvements have a base Scouting modifier of +0. If an army is garrisoned at the improvement, its uses the highest Scouting modifier among that army's unit leaders.

Table: Building Scouting Range

Building Scout Hex Radius
Watchtower 1
Barracks 1
Castle 2
Garrison 2
Fort 3

Overland Marching

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An army can move across hexes without issue for up to 8 hours a day. They can continue moving for longer than that by going on a forced march. However, at every hour of forced marching, the army must make an army Morale check (DC 10, +5 per extra hour). If the check fails, all units in the army become fatigued. Any units that are already fatigued while forced marching become exhausted if the Morale check fails. Any exhausted units cannot move if the Moral check fails. The Fatigue DC carries over into a battle if the army does not gain a full rest beforehand.

Units require 8 hours of rest to recover from fatigue, exhaustion, or being immobile from forced marching. Units immune to fatigue or have abilities to remove fatigue can essentially continue moving without rest.

Hustle: An army can move at a hustle for one hour. For each hour of hustling beyond the first, a Morale check (DC 10, +5 per extra hour) is required. If the check fails, the all units in the army become fatigued. Any units that are already fatigued while hustling become exhausted if the Morale check fails. Any exhausted units cannot move if the Moral check fails.

Army Logistics

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"The line between disorder and order lies in logistics…"
–Sun Tzu

"An army marches on its stomach."
—Napolean Bonaparte

Armies cost Consumption each week that they are kept in the field, or each month that they are garrisoned. An army can always be created in one place and moved to another location to be garrisoned there. It is considered to be in the field while moving its base of operations, and must pay that consumption for that week, but if it reaches its destination in less than a week, it can be treated as being garrisoned, and must pay consumption only once more for the remainder of the month. To be garrisoned, an army must be assigned to a settlement or hex with enough buildings to accommodate the army's total number of troops.

Watchtower: Up to 50 troops.
Barracks: Up to 100 troops.
Castle: Up to 200 troops.
Garrison: Up to 500 troops.
Fort: Up to 2,000 troops.

An army's base consumption is equal to half its CR (rounded down, minimum 1), paid at the beginning of each week (or month). If you don't pay, its Morale goes down by 2; if it the army's Morale reaches -11, the army disbands. If an army disbands from lack of pay, your nation suffers -2 penalty to your nation's Stability, Economy, and Loyalty for the next 12 months.

Consumption is paid by the BP in the army's Supplies. When an army is garrisoned in a settlement in your nation, its Consumption can be paid directly from the nation's treasury. When the army is deployed, BP must be transferred from the nation's treasury to the army's supplies. While the army is deployed or garrisoned in a terrain improvement or foreign territory, its supply of BP needs to be replenished via transport from another army unit. An army's supply of BP can be looted by another army when defeated, or could be left remaining on the field. An army can carry an amount of BP up to six times its ACR without slowing down; the army's speed is halved when it exceeds that limit (to a minimum movement speed of 5 feet).

Living Off the Land: Armies with the Living Off the Land command boon are highly skilled at surviving in the wild. Each unit with the boon can attempt to supply its army by foraging and hunting, gaining 1d6+1 BP worth of supplies. This requires a DC 10 Morale check, though the DC increases by 1 for every 100 soldiers in the army; however if another army foraged in the hex within the last month, the DC is what the previous set plus 1. Making the check requires the army to spend 1 day in the hex. Each day an army has its units attempt to live off the land in the same hex, the DC increases by 1. Once a check is failed, that hex is exhausted in terms of available game. The type of terrain, season, and weather can affect your ability to forage; see Table: Terrain, Season, and Weather Effects on Foraging. All three modifiers stack together. The hex requires at least one month of no army foraging in it since it was last foraged to reset its DC or to be replenished if it was depleted.

Armies can choose to commandeer resources from people living in the hex, or simply rob them and pillage their supplies. This adds a bonus of +1d6 to the Morale check, +2d6 in a hex with farms, but each hex you pillage results in -1 Loyalty and +1 Infamy.

Table: Terrain, Season, and Weather Effects on Foraging

Terrain Morale Check Modifier
Arctic, Desert -4
Cavern, Mountains, Tundra -2
Coastline, River1 +1
Forest, Hills, Marsh, Plains, Water +0
Season Morale Check Modifier
Winter -4
Spring +0
Summer +2
Autumn +0
Weather Morale Check Modifier
Extreme Cold or Heat, Rainstorm, Strong Wind -2
Fog, High Altitude, Rain -1
Mist +0
Severe Wind, Snow -4
Hurricane, Sand/Snow/Windstorm 2
1Stacks with adjacent land terrain.
2Impossible to forage in this weather.

Pillage and Plunder: The equipment and supplies of a defeated army or unit can be taken by the victors in a battle as spoils of war. These spoils are worth a number of BP equal to 1/2 the ACR of an army that is defeated, disbanded or destroyed, plus 1/2 of the value of any army resources it has. The victorious army adds these spoils to their supplies.

In addition, an army of 50 or more soldiers can be sent into any hex containing terrain improvements, spending one day burning fields, slaughtering herds, tearing down buildings, and generally wreaking havoc. At the end of each day, one terrain improvement in that hex that the army’s commander wishes to destroy is destroyed. The nation that owns the hex can make a Stability check with a -1 penalty for every 50 soldiers engaged in pillaging their land. A successful Stability check preserves enough of that improvement to allow its reconstruction at 1/4 of the cost once the hostile army has left the hex and it is unoccupied. Pillaging armies add 5d4 BP to their supplies for each major improvement they destroy, and 1d4 BP for each minor improvements.

Finally, armies can pillage an undefended settlement by destroying buildings. The pillaging army adds BP to their supplies equal to half of the building's cost (minimum 1 BP). The building is then considered destroyed. An army can pillage a number of buildings up to its ACR per day.

Conquering Enemy Territory

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When your army enters a hex claimed by another nation, it can spend a day to take control of its infrastructure. The hex then becomes occupied by your nation. The hex and its improvements still belong to its original nation, but count as losing hexes (see House Rules: Nation Building - Losing Hexes). You can occupy a hex with a settlement in it if there is no opposing army in it.

You can only occupy a hex if it is adjacent to your nation or a hex you are already occupying. If an opposing army reclaims an occupied hex (or occupies your occupied hex in the case of a 3rd-party army), and occupied hexes that are no longer linked to your nation are freed and returned to its original owner. An occupied hex allows a supply line to be established in the other nation's territory, allowing you to directly pay Consumption to any armies in those hexes.

Your nation can gain the bonuses from a hex and its improvements and settlement that you are occupying by putting its native inhabitants back to work for your nation. During the nation's Decision phase, the Ruler can spend 1 BP to make an occupied hex become exploited. The hex and its settlement are temporarily added to your nation, increasing its Size and Control DC. Your nation benefits half of the value of all numerical bonuses generated by that hex, except for Unrest increases and penalties which remain at full value.

Hexes claimed by your nation that are occupied or exploited can be reclaimed by your army spending a day in that hex to retake control at no cost. The hex must not contain any opposing armies in it.

Hexes that are no longer connected to a nation due to occupied hexes become cut-off. Those hexes are still claimed by their nation, but like occupied hexes, count as losing hexes. Control over these hexes are immediately returned to their original owner when they are once more linked to their unoccupied territory containing their nation's capital. Cut-off hexes can be reconnected to its parent nation by connecting them with hexes occupied by the parent nation.

Your nation's territory are all the hexes that are linked to your capital settlement. If you change which settlement is your capital, then the hexes that are considered to be your nation also changes as well.

Weather

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Weather also can play a major role in a battle. There are general guidelines for factoring this into a battle in Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Ultimate Campaign, but presented below is a table for your reference translating the standard adventuring rules in the Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Core Rulebook into battlefield terms, along with special rules for how weather can interact with armies in the field.

The penalties from precipitation, temperation, and wind stack with each other.

Temperature: Different temperature conditions can significantly impact an army's ability to travel and operate. Cold conditions require additional supplies to keep soldiers and beasts warm, such as additional clothing, fuel for sources of warmth, additional shelters. Heat conditions are less severe, but an army still requires additional supplies to keep cool and avoid heat stroke. Units suffer casualties due to different levels of temperatures while being active in the field. Garrisoned units protected from the hardships of the various temperature levels thanks to shelter and supplies.

  • Extreme Cold: Units suffer 3 Casualties to each section every day spent in the field. Units with Cold Gear or at least Energy Resistance (cold) 10 suffer only 2 Casualties to each section. Units with at least Energy Resistance (cold) 20 only suffer 1 Casualty to each section, while units with at least Energy Resistance (cold) 30 or Energy Immunity (cold) suffer no casualties from extreme cold temperatures. Extreme cold also force units to make a Morale check at the current Fatigue DC to avoid becoming fatigued, with a -1 penalty for armies wearing Medium Armor, -2 for those wearing Heavy Armor..
  • Severe Cold: Units suffer 2 Casualties to each section every day spent in the field. Units with Cold Gear or at least Energy Resistance (cold) 10 suffer only 1 Casualty to each section. Units with at least Energy Resistance (cold) 20 or Energy Immunity (cold) suffer no casualties from severe cold temperatures.
  • Cold: Units suffer 1 Casualty to each section every day spent in the field. Units with Cold Gear, at least Energy Resistance (cold) 10, or Energy Immunity (cold) suffer no casualties from cold temperatures.
  • Very Hot: Units suffer 1 Casualty to each section every day spent in the field. Units withHot Weather Gear, at least Energy Resistance (fire) 10 or Energy Immunity (fire) suffer no casualties in very hot temperatures even with Heavy Armor. Units with Heavy Armor suffer 1 additional Casualty.
  • Severe Heat: Units suffer 2 Casualties to each section every day spent in the field. Units with Hot Weather Gear or at least Energy Resistance (fire) 10 suffer only 1 Casualty to each section, while units with at least Energy Resistance (fire) 20 or Energy Immunity (fire) suffer no casualties in very hot temperatures even with Heavy Armor. Units with Medium or Heavy Armor suffer 1 additional Casualty.
  • Extreme Heat: Units suffer 3 Casualties to each section every day spent in the field. Units with Hot Weather Gear or at least Energy Resistance (fire) 10 suffer only 2 Casualties to each section, while units with at least Energy Resistance (fire) 20 suffer only 1 Casualty to each section. Units with Medium or Heavy Armor suffer 1 additional Casualty. Units with at least Energy Resistance (fire) 30 or Energy Immunity (fire) suffer no casualties in very hot temperatures even with Heavy Armor. Extreme heat also force units to make a Morale check at the current Fatigue DC to avoid becoming fatigued, with a -1 penalty for armies wearing Medium Armor, -2 for those wearing Heavy Armor..

Precipitation: Light rain and snow have a 10% cumulative chance for each Battle phase they continue of causing the battlefield to turn into treacherous terrain (see Terrain) due to the accumulation of snow or the liquefaction of the ground into mud. A rainstorm or snowstorm double this chance. This should be checked at the end of every Rout phase.

Wind: With very high winds, normal ranged attacks become impossible (indicated by the X above); however, siege weapons can still be used, as can magical attacks such as breath weapons or a Magical Barrage command boon. In addition, flying creatures and creatures on board wind-powered ships take double the listed penalties to OM.

Severe Events: Severe events are special combinations of types of precipitations and windstorm-strength winds. Modifiers from severe events only stack with temperature modifiers.

Table: Weather

Temperature Melee Ranged DV Scout/Zone Range Visibility Speed
Cold
Cold, severe -5 ft.
Cold, extreme -1 -1 -10 ft.
Hot
Hot, severe -5 ft.
Hot, extreme -1 -1 -10 ft.
Precipitation Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Drizzle
Fog, medium -1 -2 -2; 1 zone away
Fog, heavy -2 -4 -4; current zone only
Fog, light -1 -1
Rain -1 -1 -5 ft.
Rain, heavy -1 -2 -1 -2 -10 ft.
Rain, light
Sleet -2 -3 -1 -2 -15 ft.
Snow, medium -1 -1 -2 -10 ft.
Snow, heavy -1 -2 -2 -4/2 zones away -20 ft.
Snow, light -1 -5 ft.
Wind Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Light
Moderate -2
Strong -4 -10 ft. (Medium or larger creatures can move normally)
Severe -1 X/-2 -2 -20 ft. (Large or larger creatures can move normally)
Windstorm -2 X/-4 -4 -30 ft. (Huge or larger creatures can move normally)
Severe Events Melee Ranged DV Scout Speed
Blizzard -6 X/-8 -4 -8/current zone only -50 ft. (Colossal or larger creatures can move normally)
Haboob/Sandstorm -6 X/-8 -4 -8/current zone only -40 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)
Hail -4 X/-4 -4 -8/current zone only -30 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)
Hurricane -4 X/-6 -4 -40 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)
Thundersnow -6 X/-8 -4 -8/current zone only -50 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)
Thunderstorm -4 X/-6 -4 -8/current zone only -40 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)
Tornado/Firenado X X/-8 X -8/current zone only -50 ft. (Gargantuan or larger creatures can move normally)

Quick Battle


If you do not wish to take the time to play out a battle between two armies on a tactical level, the battle can be resolved on a more abstract level. A quick battle uses the overall statistics of each army, each leader chooses their strategy. Tactics are not used, and neither are special abilities unless every unit in the army has that special ability.

  • Army hp is equal to its ACR.
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